Multidrug-Resistant and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Hog Slaughter and Processing Plant Workers and Their Community in North Carolina (USA)
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Citation: Castillo Neyra R, Frisancho JA, Rinsky JL, Resnick C, Carroll KC, Rule AM, Ross T, You Y, Price LB, Silbergeld EK. Multidrug-Resistant and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Hog Slaughter and Processing Plant Workers and Their Community in North Carolina (USA). Environ Health Perspect; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306741.
Received: 2 March 2013
Accepted: 4 February 2014
Advance Publication: 7 February 2014
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Background: Use of antimicrobials in industrial food-animal production is associated with the presence of antimicrobial resistant Staphylococcus aureus among animals and humans. Hog slaughter/processing plants process large numbers of animals from industrial animal operations, and are environments conducive to the exchange of bacteria between animals and workers.
Objectives: To compare the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and multidrug resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) carriage between processing plant workers, their household members, and community residents.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of hog slaughter/processing plant workers, their household members, and community residents in North Carolina. Participants responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab. Swabs were tested for S. aureus, and isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and subjected to multilocus sequence typing.
Results: The prevalence of S. aureus was 21.6%, 30.2%, and 22.5% among 162 workers, 63 household members, and 111 community residents, respectively. The overall prevalence of MRSA and MDRSA tested by disk diffusion was 4.8% and 6.9%, respectively. The adjusted prevalence of MDRSA among workers was 1.96 times (95% CI: 0.71, 5.45) the prevalence in community residents. The adjusted average number of antimicrobial classes to which S. aureus isolates from workers were resistant was 2.54 times (95% CI: 1.16, 5.56) the number among isolates from community residents. One MRSA isolate and two MDRSA isolates from workers were identified as sequence type 398, a type associated with exposure to livestock.
Conclusions: Although the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA was similar in hog slaughter/processing plant workers and their household and community members, S. aureus isolates from workers were resistant to a greater number of antimicrobial classes. These findings may be related to the non-therapeutic use of antimicrobials in food-animal production.
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