Urinary Concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,5-Dichlorophenol in the U.S. Population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): Trends and Predictors
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Citation: Ye X, Wong LY, Zhou X, Calafat AM. Urinary Concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,5-Dichlorophenol in the U.S. Population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010): Trends and Predictors. Environ Health Perspect; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306816.
Received: 18 March 2013
Accepted: 21 January 2014
Advance Publication: 22 January 2014
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Background: 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and their precursors are widely used in industry and in consumer products. Urinary concentrations of these dichlorophenols (DCPs) have been measured as part of four National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles to assess the exposure to these compounds or their precursors among the U.S. general population.
Objectives: To identify predictors and evaluate trends in concentrations of DCPs according to race/ethnicity, age, sex, family income, and housing type.
Methods: We used analysis of covariance to examine associations of various demographic parameters and survey cycle with urinary concentrations of DCPs during 2003–2010. We also conducted weighted logistic regressions to estimate associations of DCP concentrations above the 95th percentile with housing type, race/ethnicity, and income.
Results: We detected DCPs in at least 81% of participants. Geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations were higher for 2,5-DCP (6.1-12.9 µg/L) than 2,4-DCP (0.8-1.0 µg/L) throughout 2003–2010. Adjusted GM concentrations of the DCPs among children (age 6-11 years) and adults older than 60 years were higher than among adolescents and other adults. Adjusted GM concentrations among non-Hispanic whites were lower than among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, though differences according to race/ethnicity were less pronounced among participants in high-income households. Among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans adjusted GM concentrations were lowest among high-income participants relative to other income groups, with a monotonic decrease with income among Mexican Americans. Type of housing and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DCPs urinary concentrations above the 95th percentile. Furthermore, urinary DCP concentrations showed a downward trend since 2003.
Conclusions: Exposure to DCPs and their precursors was prevalent in the general U.S. population in 2003–2010. We identified age and race/ethnicity, family income, and housing type as predictors of exposure to these compounds.
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