Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort
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Citation: Fleisch AF, Gold DR, Rifas-Shiman SL, Koutrakis P, Schwartz JD, Kloog I, Melly S, Coull BA, Zanobetti A, Gillman MW, Oken E. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort. Environ Health Perspect; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307065.
Received: 9 May 2013
Accepted: 5 February 2014
Advance Publication: 7 February 2014
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Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied.
Methods: We studied Boston-area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to estimate second trimester PM2.5 and black carbon exposure via a central monitoring site and spatiotemporal models. We estimated residential traffic density and roadway proximity as surrogates for exposure to traffic-related air pollution. We performed multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic covariates and used multiple imputation to account for missing data.
Results: Of 2,093 women, 65 (3%) had IGT and 118 (6%) GDM. Second trimester spatiotemporal exposures ranged from 8.5 to 15.9 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.7 μg/m3 for black carbon. Traffic density was 0-30,860 vehicles/day x length of road (km) within 100 m; 281 (13%) women lived ≤ 200 m from a major road. The prevalence of IGT was elevated in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of exposure to spatiotemporal PM2.5 (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 6.01) and traffic density (OR 2.66; 95% CI: 1.24, 5.71). IGT also was positively associated with other exposure measures, though associations were not statistically significant. No pollutant exposures were positively associated with GDM.
Conclusions: Greater exposure to PM2.5 and other traffic-related pollutants during pregnancy was associated with IGT but not GDM. Air pollution may contribute to abnormal glycemia in pregnancy.
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