Cardiovascular Depression in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Effects of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome
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Citation: Wagner JG, Allen K, Yang HY, Nan B, Morishita M, Mukherjee B, Dvonch JT, Spino C, Fink GD, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q, Brook RD, Harkema JR. Cardiovascular Depression in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Effects of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome. Environ Health Perspect; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307085.
Received: 14 May 2013
Accepted: 24 October 2013
Advance Publication: 29 October 2013
Background: High ambient levels of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases. Enhanced susceptibility to the toxicity of air pollutants may include those with the metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Objective: We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses to O3 and PM2.5 will be enhanced in rats with diet-induced MetS.
Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose diet (HFrD) to induce MetS and then exposed to O3, concentrated ambient PM2.5, or the combination O3+PM2.5 for 9 days. Data related to heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) were collected.
Results: Consistent with MetS, HFrD rats were hypertensive, insulin resistant and had elevated fasting levels of blood glucose and triglycerides. All exposures caused decreases in HR and BP that were greater and more persistent in HFrD rats compared to rats fed a normal diet (ND). Coexposure to O3+PM2.5 induced acute drops in HR and BP in all rats, but only ND rats adapted after two days. HFrD rats had little exposure-related changes in HRV, while ND rats had increased HRV during O3 exposure, modest decreases with PM2.5, and dramatic decreases during O3+PM2.5 coexposures.
Conclusions: Cardiovascular depression in response to exposures to O3 and PM2.5 was enhanced and prolonged in rats with HFrD-induced MetS. These results in rodents suggest that people with MetS may be prone to similar exaggerated BP and HR responses to inhaled air pollutants.
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EHP is proud to announce its 2013 Paper of the Year is “450K Epigenome-Wide Scan Identifies Differential DNA Methylation in Newborns Related to Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy” [Environ Health Perspect 120(10):1425–1431 (2012); doi:10.1289/ehp.1205412]. The Paper of the Year award is given to the most highly cited Research Article, Commentary, or Review Article published in the preceding 12 months.
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