Differential Effects of Source-Specific Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospitalizations for Ischemic Heart Disease in Hong Kong
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Citation: Pun VC, Yu IT, Ho KF, Qiu H, Sun Z, Tian L. Differential Effects of Source-Specific Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospitalizations for Ischemic Heart Disease in Hong Kong. Environ Health Perspect; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307213.
Received: 13 June 2013
Accepted: 4 February 2014
Advance Publication: 7 February 2014
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Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major public health concern. Although many epidemiologic studies have reported evidence of adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) mass on IHD, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the potential impacts of different PM sources. Like PM size, PM sources may influence toxicological characteristics.
Objectives: We identified contributing sources to PM10 mass and estimated the acute effects of PM10 sources on daily emergency IHD hospitalizations in Hong Kong.
Methods: We analyzed the concentration data of nineteen PM10 chemical components measured between 2001 and 2007 by positive matrix factorization to apportion PM10 mass, and used generalized additive models to estimate associations of inter-quartile range (IQR) increases in PM10 exposures with IHD hospitalization for different lag periods (up to 5 days), adjusted for potential confounders.
Results: Eight PM10 sources were identified: vehicle exhaust, soil/road dust, regional combustion, residual oil, fresh sea salt, aged sea salt, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate. Secondary sulfate, vehicle exhaust, and secondary nitrate contributed over half of the PM10 mass. While associations with IQR increases in two-day moving averages (lag01) were statistically significant for most sources based on single-source models, only PM10 from vehicle exhaust (1.87%; 95% CI: 0.66, 3.10; IQR = 4.9 μg/m3), secondary nitrate (2.28%; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.42; IQR = 8.6 μg/m3) and aged sea salt (1.19%; 95% CI: 0.04, 2.36; IQR = 5.9 μg/m3) were significantly associated with IHD hospitalizations in multi-source model. Analysis using chemical components provided similar findings.
Conclusion: Emergency IHD hospitalization was significantly linked with PM10 from vehicle exhaust, nitrate-rich secondary PM, and sea salt-related PM. Findings may help prioritize toxicological research and guide future monitoring and emission control polices.
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