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Research Article Advance Publication

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307756

Associations between Arsenic Species in Exfoliated Urothelial Cells and Prevalence of Diabetes among Residents of Chihuahua, Mexico

Jenna M. Currier,1 María C. Ishida,2 Carmen González-Horta,2 Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez,2 Lourdes Ballinas-Casarrubias,2 Daniela S. Gutiérrez-Torres,2 Roberto Hernández Cerón,3 Damián Viniegra Morales,3 Francisco A. Baeza Terrazas,3 Luz M. Del Razo,4 Gonzalo G. García-Vargas,5 R. Jesse Saunders,6 Zuzana Drobná,6 Rebecca C. Fry,7 Tomáš Matoušek,8 John B. Buse,9 Michelle A. Mendez,6,10 Dana Loomis,11 and Miroslav Stýblo1,6
Author Affiliations close
1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Programa de Maestría en Ciencias en Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México; 3Colegio de Médicos Cirujanos y Homeópatas del Estado de Chihuahua, A.C.; 4Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México Distrito Federal, México; 5Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Gómez Palacio, Durango, México; 6Department of Nutrition and 7Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 8Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Brno, Czech Republic; 9School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 10Carolina Population Center and Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 11International Agency for Research on Cancer, Monographs Section, Lyon Cedex, France
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This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process.

Citation: Currier JM, Ishida MC, González-Horta C, Sánchez-Ramírez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Gutiérrez-Torres DS, Hernández Cerón R, Viniegra Morales D, Baeza Terrazas FA, Del Razo LM, García-Vargas GG, Saunders RJ, Drobná Z, Fry RC, Matoušek T, Buse JB, Mendez MA, Loomis D, Stýblo M. Associations between Arsenic Species in Exfoliated Urothelial Cells and Prevalence of Diabetes among Residents of Chihuahua, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect;

Received: 18 October 2013
Accepted: 26 June 2014
Advance Publication: 27 June 2014

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Background: A growing number of studies link chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with risk of diabetes. Many of these studies assessed iAs exposure by measuring arsenic (As) species in urine. However, this approach has been criticized because of uncertainties associated with renal function and urine dilution in diabetic individuals.

Objectives: Our goal was to examine associations between prevalence of diabetes and concentrations of As species in exfoliated urothelial cells (EUC) as an alternative to the measures of As in urine.

Methods: We measured concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent iAs, methyl-As (MAs), and dimethyl-As (DMAs) species in EUC from 374 residents of Chihuahua, Mexico, who were exposed to iAs in drinking water. We used fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance tests, and self-reported diabetes diagnoses or medication to identify diabetic participants. Associations between As species in EUC and diabetes were estimated using logistic and linear regression adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index.

Results: We found that interquartile range increases in trivalent, but not pentavalent As species in EUC were positively and significantly associated with diabetes, with OR of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.07) for iAsIII, 1.63 (1.24 – 2.15) for MAsIII, and 1.31 (0.96 – 1.84) for DMAsIII. DMAs/MAs and DMAs/iAs ratios were negatively associated with diabetes (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.83 and OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.96, respectively).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that uncertainties associated with measures of As species in urine may be avoided by using As species in EUC as markers of iAs exposure and metabolism, and provide additional support to previous findings suggesting that trivalent As species may be responsible for associations between diabetes and chronic iAs exposure.

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