Review Advance Publication
Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process.
Citation: Hamra GB, Guha N, Cohen A, Laden F, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Samet JM, Vineis P, Forastiere F, Saldiva P, Yorifuji T, Loomis D. Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Environ Health Perspect; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408092.
Received: 6 January 2014
Accepted: 3 June 2014
Advance Publication: 6 June 2014
For materials with complex tables, EHP offers “Alt 508″ versions optimized for use with screen-reading software.
Background: Particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution was recently designated a Group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This determination was based on the evidence regarding the relationship of PM2.5 and PM10 to lung cancer risk; however, the IARC evaluation did not include a quantitative summary of the evidence.
Objective: To provide a systematic review and quantitative summary of the evidence regarding the relationship between PM and lung cancer.
Methods: We conducted meta-analyses of studies examining the relationship of exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 with lung cancer incidence and mortality. In total, 18 studies met inclusion criteria and provided the information necessary to estimate the change in lung cancer risk per 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM. We used random effects analyses to allow between study variability to contribute to meta-estimates.
Results: The meta-relative risk (95% CI) for lung cancer associated with PM2.5 was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.14). The meta-relative risk of lung cancer associated with PM10 was similar, but less precise: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.17). Estimates were robust to restriction to studies that considered potential confounders, as well as sub-analyses by exposure assessment method. Analyses by smoking status showed that lung cancer risk associated with PM2.5 was greatest for former smokers, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.22) followed by never smokers, 1.18 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.39), and then current smokers, 1.06 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.15). In addition, meta-estimates for adenocarcinoma associated with PM2.5 and PM10 were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.83) and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.63), respectively.
Conclusion: The results of these analyses, and the decision of the IARC working group to classify PM and outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic (Group 1), further justify efforts to reduce exposures to air pollutants that can arise from many sources.
New Impact Factor
We are pleased to announce our new impact factor of 7.03 and—for the first time—our inclusion in the category of Toxicology. Thank you to our authors and readers, who continue to make EHP a leading journal in Environmental Sciences, in Public, Environmental, and Occupational Health, and now in Toxicology.
EHP News Feature Wins Award
Our March 2013 cover story, “A Tale of Two Forests: Addressing Postnuclear Radiation at Chernobyl and Fukushima,” has won first place in the Outstanding Feature Story category of the Society of Environmental Journalists Awards for Reporting on the Environment. The judges called the story “an exceedingly vital and original piece of environmental feature writing.” Congratulations to authors Winifred A. Bird and Jane Braxton Little on their exciting achievement!
CEHN August 2014 Article of the Month
“Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study” (Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307261) has been selected by the Children’s Environmental Health Network (CEHN) as its August 2014 Article of the Month. These CEHN summaries discuss the potential policy implications of current children’s environmental health research.
Register Today for PPTOX IVEnvironmental Stressors in Disease and Implications for Human Health
October 26–29, 2014
Boston Marriott Long Wharf Hotel
Join the Endocrine Society for the fourth international summit of Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX), a premiere conference series dedicated to cutting-edge discussion of environmental hazards during early life and long-term consequences.Key deadlines:
* Abstract submission: Tuesday, September 2
* Housing deadline: Monday, October 6
For more information, visit the Endocrine Society website.
Sign Up to Receive E-mail Alerts
Recent Advance Publications
- Genistein Disrupts Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling in Human Uterine Endometrial Ishikawa Cells
- Modification of the Association between PM10 and Lung Function Decline by Cadherin 13 Polymorphisms in the SAPALDIA Cohort: A Genome-Wide Interaction Analysis
- Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, and Cellular Responses to Stress
- Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study
- Perfluorochemicals and Human Semen Quality: The LIFE Study
- Molecular Signaling Network Motifs Provide a Mechanistic Basis for Cellular Threshold Responses
- Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study
- EHPNoonNews: High mercury levels in improperly labeled fish http://t.co/iy8cvkE1C8 @kitv4
- EHPNoonNews: Researchers find crucial step in DNA repair http://t.co/ekDyWIj0gi @wsunews
- EHPNoonNews: Lead from car batteries recycled into solar panels http://t.co/YYrGkdlLpI @takepart
- EHPNoonNews: In WI's karst area, even good farming may pollute groundwater http://t.co/bgHzJHzmLf @wiswatch
- AdvPubl: Genistein disrupts glucocorticoid receptor signaling http://t.co/cojJ0RhK7Y