Research Article Advance Publication
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1510185
Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes
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Background: There are over 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000’s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “Popcorn Lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes.
Objective: To determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl, and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes.
Methods: We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA Method 1012.
Results: At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from < limit of qualification (LOQ) to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively.
Conclusion: Due to the associations between diacetyl, bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes.
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Citation: Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185
Received: 7 May 2015
Accepted: 9 November 2015
Advance Publication: 8 December 2015
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