Correspondence September 2013 | Volume 121 | Issue 9
Arsenic Levels in Chicken
PDF Version 131 KB
I commend Nachman et al. (2013) on their careful study of arsenic content in market samples of chicken and am dismayed to learn that arsenic levels in chicken remain high despite our report of arsenic levels in Environmental Health Perspectives in 2004 (Lasky et al. 2004).
One possible explanation is the very complicated lines of authority around the regulation of drugs fed to food animals, along with the enforcement of those regulations. Nachman et al. (2013) focused their discussion on the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but many other agencies participate in the regulation and enforcement of residue safety in food animals. As noted by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) in the introduction to their 2012 Residue Sampling Plans (FSIS 2012),
The U.S. National Residue Program (NRP) for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products, administered by the USDA [U.S. Department of Agriculture] FSIS, is an interagency program designed to identify, rank and test for chemical contaminants in meat, poultry, and egg products.
The NRP requires the cooperation and collaboration of several agencies for its successful design and implementation. The USDA FSIS, the EPA [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency], and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) FDA are the primary federal agencies managing this program. The FDA, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, establishes tolerances for veterinary drugs, and action levels for food additives and environmental contaminants. The EPA, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (as modified by the Food Quality Protection Act), establishes tolerance levels for registered pesticides…. Representatives from FSIS, FDA, EPA, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), and the DHHS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborate to develop the scheduled sampling program.
Setting and enforcing safety levels involves several steps, one of which is the collection of meat and poultry samples, followed by statistical analysis, interpretation, and action. The NRP sampling plan is designed to identify samples with residues above the allowed levels. The data are then analyzed as categorical values (violation, no violation). Current methods of data analysis do not include estimation of mean values that can then be extrapolated to the national food supply. It was by analyzing the data as a continuous variable that my coauthors and I were able to describe the high levels of arsenic in chicken in 2004 (Lasky et al. 2004).
Concerns about arsenic levels in chicken are of increasing importance because of the increased per capita consumption of chicken over the past decade (USDA Economic Research Service 2013).
Lasky T, Sun W, Kadry A, Hoffman MK. 2004. Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989–2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken. Environ Health Perspect 112:18–21; doi:10.1289/ehp.6407.
Nachman KE, Baron PA, Raber G, Francesconi KA, Navas-Acien A, Love DC. 2013. Roxarsone, inorganic arsenic, and other arsenic species in chicken: a U.S.-based market basket sample. Environ Health Perspect 121:818–824; doi:10.1289/ehp.1206245.
USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Economic Research Service. 2013. Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System: Summary Findings. Available: http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-(per-capita)-data-system/summary-findings.aspx#.UZFPmOBoLH0 [accessed 13 May 2013].
USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture), FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service). 2012. United States National Residue Program for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: 2012 Residue Sampling Plans. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/2012_Blue_Book.pdf [accessed 13 May 2013].
EHP is pleased to announce that it is now operating under a continuous publication workflow! As indicated in a previous announcement, continuous publication allows EHP to post new content online throughout the month, as each paper becomes ready for an issue. This gets content out to our readers much more quickly than the old issue-based model, and unlike our previous Advance Publication model, these are final, edited articles. (more…)
EHP is pleased to announce that Prenatal Exposure to Glycol Ethers and Neurocognitive Abilities in 6-Year-Old Children: The PELAGIE Cohort Study, published in EHP on 14 October 2016, has been selected by the Children’s Environmental Health Network (CEHN) as its May 2017 Article of the Month. CEHN Article of the Month summaries discuss the potential policy implications of current children’s environmental health research. The CEHN summary can be viewed here.
Among the Resources now available on our Children’s Health page is the text of Executive Order 13045, “Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks” (21 April 1997). The Executive Order noted the particular vulnerabilities of children to environmental hazards, codified the need to identify and alleviate such risks, and created the President’s Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children to identify data resources and promote research in these areas. As we mark 20 years since the order was enacted, we can see how these efforts have produced important research and mitigation of hazards—a strong base for continued work on behalf of children’s environmental health.