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Environmental Health Perspectives

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April 2013 | Volume 121 | Issue 4



The Lyme Disease Debate: Host Biodiversity and Human Disease Risk

Sharon Levy | A120

Lyme disease is the most common vectorborne infection in North America, and the ecology of the causative agent, a spirochete named Borrelia burgdorferi, is the subject of both intense study and intense scientific debate. Some researchers think protecting large tracts of forest habitat will ultimately reduce the risk of human infection. Others believe the relationship between host biodiversity and human disease risk is not so clearcut.


Rare Fungal Illness Follows Tornado

Bob Weinhold | A116

Estimating Wastewater Impacts from Fracking

Charles W. Schmidt | A117

Ancient Gut Microbiomes Shed Light on Modern Disease

Sharon Levy | A118

The Beat

Erin E. Dooley | A119

121n4_focus2_food_additivesSpheres of Influence

Secret Ingredients: Who Knows What’s in Your Food?

Wendee Nicole | A126

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act of 1938 has been amended over the years in attempts to streamline and bring order to the sprawling task of assessing and categorizing the thousands of substances used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. One result of this streamlining is that under current U.S. law, companies can add certain types of ingredients to foods without premarket approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Is this a problem? The answer depends on whom you ask.

Science Selections

Climate Change Adaptation: Weighing Strategies for Heat-Related Health Challenges

Julia R. Barrett | A134

Unclear Relationship: Prenatal but Not Concurrent Bisphenol A Exposure Linked to Lower Weight and Less Fat

Kellyn S. Betts | A135

When Blood Meets Nitrogen Oxides: Pregnancy Complications and Air Pollution Exposure

Tanya Tillett | A136

Toward Primary Prevention of Cancer: The Case for a Global Strategy to Limit Environmental and Occupational Exposures

Valerie J. Brown | A137



Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

Christine M. Jessup, John M. Balbus, Carole Christian, Ehsanul Haque, Sally E. Howe, Sheila A. Newton, Britt C. Reid, Luci Roberts, Erin Wilhelm, and Joshua P. Rosenthal | 399

A Discussion of Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy

Paul J. Lioy and Kirk R. Smith | 405

ONE Nano: NIEHS’s Strategic Initiative on the Health and Safety Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials

Thaddeus T. Schug, Anne F. Johnson, David M. Balshaw, Stavros Garantziotis, Nigel J. Walker, Christopher Weis, Srikanth S. Nadadur, and Linda S. Birnbaum | 410

Managing the Health Effects of Temperature in Response to Climate Change: Challenges Ahead

Cunrui Huang, Adrian G. Barnett, Zhiwei Xu, Cordia Chu, Xiaoming Wang, Lyle R. Turner, and Shilu Tong | 415


Environmental and Occupational Interventions for Primary Prevention of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework

Carolina Espina, Miquel Porta, Joachim Schüz, Ildefonso Hernández Aguado, Robert V. Percival, Carlos Dora, Terry Slevin, Julietta Rodriguez Guzman, Tim Meredith, Philip J. Landrigan, and Maria Neira | 420


Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and QT-Interval Prolongation: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

Yu Chen, Fen Wu, Faruque Parvez, Alauddin Ahmed, Mahbub Eunus, Tyler R. McClintock, Tazul Islam Patwary, Tariqul Islam, Anajan Kumar Ghosal, Shahidul Islam, Rabiul Hasan, Diane Levy, Golam Sarwar, Vesna Slavkovich, Alexander van Geen, Joseph H. Graziano, and Habibul Ahsan | 427

The Natural Estrogenic Compound Diarylheptanoid (D3): In Vitro Mechanisms of Action and in Vivo Uterine Responses via Estrogen Receptor α

Wipawee Winuthayanon, Pawinee Piyachaturawat, Apichart Suksamrarn, Katherine A. Burns, Yukitomo Arao, Sylvia C. Hewitt, Lars C. Pedersen, and Kenneth S. Korach | 433

Biotransformation of BDE‑47 to Potentially Toxic Metabolites Is Predominantly Mediated by Human CYP2B6

Maria Luisa Feo, Michael S. Gross, Barbara P. McGarrigle, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, Diana S. Aga, and James R. Olson | 440

Association of Osteoarthritis with Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in NHANES 2003–2008

Sarah A. Uhl, Tamarra James-Todd, and Michelle L. Bell | 447

Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men

Anne Vested, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Sjurdur Frodi Olsen, Jens Peter Bonde, Susanne Lund Kristensen, Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson, Georg Becher, Line Småstuen Haug, Emil Hagen Ernst, and Gunnar Toft | 453

Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs): In Vitro Mechanism of Estrogenic Activation and Differential Effects on ER Target Genes

Yin Li, Colin J. Luh, Katherine A. Burns, Yukitomo Arao, Zhongliang Jiang, Christina T. Teng, Raymond R. Tice, and Kenneth S. Korach | 459

Polymorphisms in Iron Homeostasis Genes and Urinary Cadmium Concentrations among Nonsmoking Women in Argentina and Bangladesh

Gerda Rentschler, Maria Kippler, Anna Axmon, Rubhana Raqib, Eva-Charlotte Ekström, Staffan Skerfving, Marie Vahter, and Karin Broberg | 467

Phthalate Concentrations and Dietary Exposure from Food Purchased in New York State

Arnold Schecter, Matthew Lorber, Ying Guo, Qian Wu, Se Hun Yun, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Madeline Hommel, Nadia Imran, Linda S. Hynan, Dunlei Cheng, Justin A. Colacino, and Linda S. Birnbaum | 473

Performance in Omics Analyses of Blood Samples in Long-Term Storage: Opportunities for the Exploitation of Existing Biobanks in Environmental Health Research

Dennie G.A.J. Hebels, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Hector C. Keun, Toby J. Athersuch, Paolo Vineis, Roel Vermeulen, Lützen Portengen, Ingvar A. Bergdahl, Göran Hallmans, Domenico Palli, Benedetta Bendinelli, Vittorio Krogh, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Salvatore Panico, Jos C.S. Kleinjans, Theo M.C.M. de Kok, Martyn T. Smith, and Soterios A. Kyrtopoulos, on behalf of the EnviroGenomarkers Project Consortium | 480

Children’s Health

Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

Ebba Malmqvist, Kristina Jakobsson, Håkan Tinnerberg, Anna Rignell-Hydbom, and Lars Rylander | 488

Urban Tree Canopy and Asthma, Wheeze, Rhinitis, and Allergic Sensitization to Tree Pollen in a New York City Birth Cohort

Gina S. Lovasi, Jarlath P. M. O’Neil-Dunne, Jacqueline W. T. Lu, Daniel Sheehan, Matthew S. Perzanowski, Sean W. MacFaden, Kristen L. King, Thomas Matte, Rachel L. Miller, Lori A. Hoepner, Frederica P. Perera, and Andrew Rundle | 494

Race/Ethnicity–Specific Associations of Urinary Phthalates with Childhood Body Mass in a Nationally Representative Sample

Leonardo Trasande, Teresa M. Attina, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Adam J. Spanier, and Jan Blustein | 501

Serum Polyfluoroalkyl Concentrations, Asthma Outcomes, and Immunological Markers in a Case–Control Study of Taiwanese Children

Guang-Hui Dong, Kuan-Yen Tung, Ching-Hui Tsai, Miao-Miao Liu, Da Wang, Wei Liu, Yi-He Jin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Yungling Leo Lee, and Pau-Chung Chen | 507

Prenatal and Postnatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Body Mass Index in Childhood in the CHAMACOS Cohort

Kim G. Harley, Raul Aguilar Schall, Jonathan Chevrier, Kristin Tyler, Helen Aguirre, Asa Bradman, Nina T. Holland, Robert H. Lustig, Antonia M. Calafat, and Brenda Eskenazi | 514




The Impact of Endocrine Disruption: A Consensus Statement on the State of the Science

Åke Bergman, Jerrold J. Heindel, Tim Kasten, Karen A. Kidd, Susan Jobling,
Maria Neira, R. Thomas Zoeller, Georg Becher, Poul Bjerregaard, Riana Bornman, Ingvar Brandt,
Andreas Kortenkamp, Derek Muir, Marie-Noël Brune Drisse, Roseline Ochieng, Niels E. Skakkebaek,
Agneta Sundén Byléhn, Taisen Iguchi, Jorma Toppari, and Tracey J. Woodruff | A104

State of the Science of Endocrine Disruptors

Linda S. Birnbaum | A107

Implementing Systematic Review at the National Toxicology Program: Status and Next Steps

Linda S. Birnbaum, Kristina A. Thayer, John R. Bucher, and Mary S. Wolfe | A108


Human Exposure Assessment of Indoor Dust: Importance of Particle Size

Zhiguo Cao, Gang Yu, Bin Wang, Jun Huang, and Shubo Deng | A110

Human Exposure Assessment of Indoor Dust: Webster and Stapleton Respond

Thomas F. Webster and Heather M. Stapleton | A110

Access to Chemical Data Used in Regulatory Decision Making

Lynn R. Goldman and Ellen Silbergeld | A111-A112

Access to Chemical Data: Lutter et al. Respond

Randall Lutter, Craig Barrow, Christopher J. Borgert, James W. Conrad Jr., Debra Edwards, and Allan Felsot | A112

Erratum: Perfluorooctanoic Acid Concentrations for Participants in the C8 Health Project [119(12):1760–1765 (2011)]

Hyeong-Moo Shin, Verónica M. Vieira, P. Barry Ryan, Kyle Steenland, Scott M. Bartell | A113


Erratum: “Global Trade Tradeoff: Rickettsial Disease in Taiwan” [120(12):A456 (2012)]


Erratum: “New Primary Standard Set for Fine Particulate Matter Pollution” [121(3):A74 (2013)]


Erratum: Braun et al. “Variability of Urinary Phthalate Metabolite and Bisphenol A Concentrations before and during Pregnancy” [120:739–745 (2012)]


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