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Featured Children’s Health Articles

From the EHP Editors

May focuses on both asthma and air pollution—both of which are significant for children’s health and are often interconnected. With the prevalence of childhood asthma increasing over the past decade, the authors set out to explore whether air pollution may be a contributing factor. Specifically, they investigated the relationship between airway inflammation, as represented by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and the oxidative burden of the air pollution they were exposed to. The study included children from Montreal, Canada, who lived near two oil refineries. The children carried monitors in backpacks for 10 consecutive days to measure their exposure to PM2.5, with detailed and repeated follow-up producing 675 measurements. The authors found that the oxidative burden of air pollution was associated with airway inflammation. They also noted that use of corticosteroids may reduce the FeNO response to oxidative burden, while the presence of allergies may exacerbate it.

Photograph of a boy using a nebulizer at home
© mixetto/iStockphoto

Particulate Oxidative Burden as a Predictor of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma

Photograph of a woman pushing a baby carriage across an intersection
© olaser/iStockphoto

Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children: The ESCAPE Project

From the EHP Editors

Lung function is an indicator of respiratory health, especially when evaluated in children, who are still developing. Gehring et al. analyzed data from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), here comprising birth cohort studies from five European countries, to assess children’s lung function in relation to their exposure to air pollution. They estimated annual average air pollution levels at the children’s birth and current addresses and analyzed standard lung function measures taken when the children were 6–8 years old. The large sample of 5,921 children from the combined cohorts plus specific within-cohort data provide extensive support for the association between air pollution and a decline in lung function. See below for additional articles on air pollution and asthma in children.

Air Pollution and Lung Function in Dutch Children: A Comparison of Exposure Estimates and Associations Based on Land Use Regression and Dispersion Exposure Modeling Approaches
Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study with Individual Exposure Measurement
Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Response in a Panel of Asthmatic Children along the U.S.–Mexico Border
Serum Polyfluoroalkyl Concentrations, Asthma Outcomes, and Immunological Markers in a Case–Control Study of Taiwanese Children
Acute Effects of Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function, Airway Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Asthmatic Children
Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Wheeze in Asthmatic Children in Fresno, California
Blood Pressure and Same-Day Exposure to Air Pollution at School: Associations with Nano-Sized to Coarse PM in Children
Air Pollution, Aeroallergens, and Emergency Room Visits for Acute Respiratory Diseases and Gastroenteric Disorders among Young Children in Six Italian Cities
Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China
Ambient Ozone Concentrations Cause Increased Hospitalizations for Asthma in Children: An 18-Year Study in Southern California
Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Serum Inflammatory Cytokines in Children
A Longitudinal Study of Indoor Nitrogen Dioxide Levels and Respiratory Symptoms in Inner-City Children with Asthma
Formaldehyde Exposure and Asthma in Children: A Systematic Review
Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12–19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999–2008)
Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Implications for Developing “Win–Win” Compact Urban Development and Clean Vehicle Strategies

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