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Brief Communications
1 May 2015

The Madrid Statement on Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

Publication: Environmental Health Perspectives
Volume 123, Issue 5
Pages A107 - A111
As scientists and other professionals from a variety of disciplines, we are concerned about the production and release into the environment of an increasing number of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for the following reasons:
PFASs are man-made and found everywhere. PFASs are highly persistent, as they contain perfluorinated chains that only degrade very slowly, if at all, under environmental conditions. It is documented that some polyfluorinated chemicals break down to form perfluorinated ones (D’Eon and Mabury 2007).
PFASs are found in the indoor and outdoor environments, wildlife, and human tissue and bodily fluids all over the globe. They are emitted via industrial processes and military and firefighting operations (Darwin 2011; Fire Fighting Foam Coalition 2014), and they migrate out of consumer products into air (Shoeib et al. 2011), household dust (Björklund et al. 2009), food (Begley et al. 2008; Tittlemier et al. 2007; Trier et al. 2011), soil (Sepulvado et al. 2011; Strynar et al. 2012), ground and surface water, and make their way into drinking water (Eschauzier et al. 2012; Rahman et al. 2014).
In animal studies, some long-chain PFASs have been found to cause liver toxicity, disruption of lipid metabolism and the immune and endocrine systems, adverse neurobehavioral effects, neonatal toxicity and death, and tumors in multiple organ systems (Lau et al. 2007; Post et al. 2012). In the growing body of epidemiological evidence, some of these effects are supported by significant or suggestive associations between specific long-chain PFASs and adverse outcomes, including associations with testicular and kidney cancers (Barry et al. 2013; Benbrahim-Tallaa et al. 2014), liver malfunction (Gallo et al. 2012), hypothyroidism (Lopez-Espinosa et al. 2012), high cholesterol (Fitz-Simon et al. 2013; Nelson et al. 2009), ulcerative colitis (Steenland et al. 2013), lower birth weight and size (Fei et al. 2007), obesity (Halldorsson et al. 2012), decreased immune response to vaccines (Grandjean et al. 2012), and reduced hormone levels and delayed puberty (Lopez-Espinosa et al. 2011).
Due to their high persistence, global distribution, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity, some PFASs have been listed under the Stockholm Convention (United Nations Environment Programme 2009) as persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
As documented in the Helsingør Statement (Scheringer et al. 2014),
Although some of the long-chain PFASs are being regulated or phased out, the most common replacements are short-chain PFASs with similar structures, or compounds with fluorinated segments joined by ether linkages.
While some shorter-chain fluorinated alternatives seem to be less bioaccumulative, they are still as environmentally persistent as long-chain substances or have persistent degradation products. Thus, a switch to short-chain and other fluorinated alternatives may not reduce the amounts of PFASs in the environment. In addition, because some of the shorter-chain PFASs are less effective, larger quantities may be needed to provide the same performance.
While many fluorinated alternatives are being marketed, little information is publicly available on their chemical structures, properties, uses, and toxicological profiles.
Increasing use of fluorinated alternatives will lead to increasing levels of stable perfluorinated degradation products in the environment, and possibly also in biota and humans. This would increase the risks of adverse effects on human health and the environment.
Initial efforts to estimate overall emissions of PFASs into the environment have been limited due to uncertainties related to product formulations, quantities of production, production locations, efficiency of emission controls, and long-term trends in production history (Wang et al. 2014).
The technical capacity to destroy PFASs is currently insufficient in many parts of the world.
Global action through the Montreal Protocol (United Nations Environment Programme 2012) successfully reduced the use of the highly persistent ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), thus allowing for the recovery of the ozone layer. However, many of the organofluorine replacements for CFCs are still of concern due to their high global warming potential. It is essential to learn from such past efforts and take measures at the international level to reduce the use of PFASs in products and prevent their replacement with fluorinated alternatives in order to avoid long-term harm to human health and the environment.
For these reasons, we call on the international community to cooperate in limiting the production and use of PFASs and in developing safer nonfluorinated alternatives. We therefore urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the following actions:

Scientists:

Assemble, in collaboration with industry and governments, a global inventory of all PFASs in use or in the environment, including precursors and degradation products, and their functionality, properties, and toxicology.
Develop analytical methods for the identification and quantification of additional families of PFASs, including fluorinated alternatives.
Continue monitoring for legacy PFASs in different matrices and for environmental reservoirs of PFASs.
Continue investigating the mechanisms of toxicity and exposure (e.g., sources, fate, transport, and bioaccumulation of PFASs), and improve methods for testing the safety of alternatives.
Bring research results to the attention of policy makers, industry, the media, and the public.

Governments:

Enact legislation to require only essential uses of PFASs, and enforce labeling to indicate uses.
Require manufacturers of PFASs to
conduct more extensive toxicological testing,
make chemical structures public,
provide validated analytical methods for detection of PFASs, and
assume extended producer responsibility and implement safe disposal of products and stockpiles containing PFASs.
Work with industry to develop public registries of products containing PFASs.
Make public annual statistical data on production, imports, and exports of PFASs.
Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs in government procurement.
In collaboration with industry, ensure that an infrastructure is in place to safely transport, dispose of, and destroy PFASs and PFAS-containing products, and enforce these measures.

Chemical manufacturers:

Make data on PFASs publicly available, including chemical structures, properties, and toxicology.
Provide scientists with standard samples of PFASs, including precursors and degradation products, to enable environmental monitoring of PFASs.
Work with scientists and governments to develop safe disposal methods for PFASs.
Provide the supply chain with documentation on PFAS content and safe disposal guidelines.
Develop nonfluorinated alternatives that are neither persistent nor toxic.

Product manufacturers:

Stop using PFASs where they are not essential or when safer alternatives exist.
Develop inexpensive and sensitive PFAS quantification methods for compliance testing.
Label products containing PFASs, including chemical identity and safe disposal guidelines.
Invest in the development and use of nonfluorinated alternatives.

Purchasing organizations, retailers, and individual consumers:

Whenever possible, avoid products containing, or manufactured using, PFASs. These include many products that are stain-resistant, waterproof, or nonstick.
Question the use of such fluorinated “performance” chemicals added to consumer products.

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Signatories

Ovokeroye Abafe, Researcher, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Marlene Ågerstrand, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Lutz Ahrens, PhD, Research Scientist, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Beatriz H. Aristizabal, PhD, Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia, Manizales, Colombia
Abel Arkenbout, PhD, Chairman, ToxicoWatch Foundation, Harlingen, the Netherlands
Misha Askren, MD, Physician, Urgent Care, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, California, USA
Jannicke Bakkejord, Senior Engineer, National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway
Georg Becher, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
Thea Bechshoft, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Peter Behnisch, PhD, Director, BioDetection System, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Susanne Bejerot, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Stephen Bent, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Urs Berger, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Åke Bergman, PhD, Executive Director and Professor, Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden
Vladimir Beškoski, PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Emmanuelle Bichon, Scientific and Technical Support Manager, Oniris, Nantes-Atlantic College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering, Nantes, France
Filip Bjurlid, PhD Student, Man–Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
Tara Blank, PhD, Consultant, Elixir Environmental, Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA
Daniel Borg, PhD, Toxicology Consultant, Trossa AB, Stockholm, Sweden
Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, PhD, Professor, Department of Health and Environment, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
Hindrik Bouwman, PhD, Lecturer, Zoology Group, North-West University, Mahikeng, South Africa
Lindsay Bramwell, MSc, Research Associate, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Knut Breivik, PhD, Senior Scientist and Professor, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
Katja Broeg, PhD, Researcher, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Phil Brown, PhD, University Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Health Sciences, and Director, Social Science Environmental Health Research Institute, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Thomas Bruton, MS, PhD Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
David Camann, MS, Technical Advisor, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA
Louise Camenzuli, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Argelia Castaño, PhD, Head of Department, Area of Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain
Carmela Centeno, Industrial Development Officer, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, Austria
Ibrahim Chahoud, PhD, Professor, Department of Toxicology, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Kai Hsien Chi, PhD, Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
Eliza Chin, MD, MPH, Executive Director, American Medical Women’s Association, Reston, Virginia, USA
Carsten Christophersen, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Theo Colborn (1927–2014), PhD, President Emeritus, TEDX (The Endocrine Disruption Exchange), Paonia, Colorado, USA
Terrence J. Collins, PhD, Teresa Heinz Professor of Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; and Director, Institute for Green Science, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Johanna Congleton, MSPH, PhD, Senior Scientist, Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC, USA
Adrian Covaci, PhD, Professor, Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Craig Criddle, PhD, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
Oscar H. Fernández Cubero, Technician, National Food Center, Majadahonda, Spain
Jordi Dachs, PhD, Research Scientist, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
Cynthia de Wit, PhD, Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Barbara Demeneix, PhD, DSc, Professor, Department RDDM, National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France
Pascal Diefenbacher, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Michelle Douskey, PhD, Chemistry Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
Timothy Elgren, PhD, Dean of Arts and Sciences, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, USA
David Epel, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, USA
Ulrika Eriksson, PhD Student, Man–Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
Alexi Ernstoff, MS, PhD Student, Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Igor Eulaers, PhD Student, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Heesoo Eun, PhD, Senior Researcher, Division of Organochemicals, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan
Peter Fantke, PhD, Assistant Professor, Quantitative Sustainability Assessment Division, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Marko Filipovic, FilLic, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Marie Frederiksen, Researcher, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Carey Friedman, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Frederic Gallo, PhD, Senior Expert, Regional Activity Center for Sustainable Consumption and Production, Barcelona, Spain
Joseph A. Gardella, Jr, PhD, Distinguished Professor and John and Frances Larkin Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Buffalo–The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
Stephen Gardner, DVM, Veterinarian, Albany Animal Hospital, Richmond, California, USA
Caroline Gaus, PhD, Professor, National Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Wouter Gebbink, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
David Gee, PhD, Associate Fellow, Institute of Environment, Health, and Societies, Brunel University, Brunel, United Kingdom
Philip Germansdefer, DHC Che, MS ChE, Director of International Sales and Marketing, Fluid Management Systems, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, USA
Bondi Nxuma Gevao, PhD, Research Scientist, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait
Melissa Gomis, MS, PhD Student, Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Belen Gonzalez, PhD Student, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
Peter Gringinger, MSc, Principal, Cardno, Sassafras, Victoria, Australia
Adam Grochowalski, PhD, Professor, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krakow University of Technology, Krakow, Poland
Ramon Guardans, Scientific Advisor, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Madrid, Spain
Alexey Gusev, PhD, Senior Scientist, European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre–East, Moscow, Russia
Arno Gutleb, PhD, Project Leader, Department of Environment and Agro-Biotechnologies, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Belvaux, Luxembourg
Tenzing Gyalpo, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Johannes Hädrich, PhD, Head, Research Laboratory, European Union Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, Freiburg, Germany
Helen Håkansson, PhD, Professor of Toxicology and Chemicals Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Tomas Hansson, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Mikael Harju, PhD, Senior Scientist, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
Stuart Harrad, PhD, Professor of Environmental Chemistry, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
Bernhard Hennig, PhD, Professor of Nutrition and Toxicology, and Director, University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
Eunha Hoh, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
Sandra Huber, PhD, Senior Researcher, Environmental Chemistry, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
François Idczak, Direction de la Surveillance de l’Environnement, Institue Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP), Liege, Belgium
Alastair Iles, SJD, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
Ellen Ingre-Khans, MSc, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Alin Constantin Ionas, PhD Candidate, Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Griet Jacobs, Researcher, Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Mol, Belgium
Annika Jahnke, PhD, Researcher, Department of Cell Toxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany
Veerle Jaspers, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Allan Astrup Jensen, PhD, Research Director and CEO, Nipsect, Frederiksberg, Denmark
Javier Castro Jimenez, PhD Research Scientist, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain
Ingrid Ericson Jogsten, PhD, Research Scientist, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
Jon E. Johansen, Dr techn, Director, Chiron AS, Trondheim, Norway
Niklas Johansson, Senior Consultant, Melica Biologkonsult, Upplands Väsby, Sweden
Paula Johnson, PhD, MPH, Research Scientist, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA
Jill Johnston, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece
Anna Kärrman, PhD, Associate Professor, Man–Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
Naila Khalil, MBBS, MPH, PhD, Assistant Professor, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Kettering, Ohio, USA
Maja Kirkegaard, PhD, Cand Scient, Research Advisory, Head of Chemicals Group, Worldwatch Institute Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
Jana Klanova, PhD, Professor, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Susan Klosterhaus, PhD, Vice President, Science and Certification, Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
Candice Kollar, LEED AP, Design Strategist, Kollar Design | EcoCreative, San Francisco, California, USA
Janna G. Koppe, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Neonatology, Emma Children’s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Loenersloot, the Netherlands
Ingjerd Sunde Krogseth, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
Petr Kukucka, PhD, Junior Researcher, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Perihan Binnur Kurt Karakus, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey
Henrik Kylin, PhD, Professor, Department of Thematic Studies—Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
Remi Laane, PhD, Professor, Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Amsterdam, Deltares, Voorburg, the Netherlands
Jon Sanz Landaluze, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Le Thi Hai Le, PhD, Department Deputy Director, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Ha Noi, Vietnam
Jong-Hyeon Lee, PhD, Director, NeoEnBiz, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
Marike Martina Leijs, PhD, Professor, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Xiaodong Li, PhD, Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Yifan Li, PhD, Professor, International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
Danuta Ligocka, PhD, Senior Researcher, Department of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
Monica Lind, PhD, Scientist, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Lee Lippincott, PhD, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Allied Health Sciences, Mercer County Community College, West Windsor, New Jersey, USA
Mariann Lloyd-Smith, PhD, Senior Advisor, National Toxics Network, East Ballina, New South Wales, Australia
Karin Löfstrand, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Rainer Lohmann, PhD, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA
Donald Lucas, PhD, Research Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
José Vinicio Macias, PhD, Researcher, Autonomous University of Baja California, Baja California, Mexico
Karl Mair, Magister, Senior Environmental Chemist, Eco Research, Bolzano, Italy
Govindan Malarvannan, PhD, Research Scientist, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Svetlana Malysheva, PhD, Research Scientist, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Ghent University, Brussels, Belgium
Jonathan Martin, PhD, Professor, Division of Analytical and Environmental Toxicology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Lisa Mattioli, MSc, Scientist, Department of Chemistry, Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Michael McLachlan, PhD, Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Lisa Melymuk, PhD, Junior Researcher, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Annelle Mendez, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Tom Muir, MS, Consultant (retired), Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
Marie Danielle Mulder, PhD Student, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Jochen Müller, PhD, Professor, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Patricia Murphy, ND, LAc, Naturopathic Physician, Portland, Oregon, USA
Takeshi Nakano, PhD, Specially Appointed Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Amgalan Natsagdorj, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Seth Newton, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Täby, Sweden
Carla Ng, PhD, Senior Scientist, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Bo Normander, PhD, Executive Director, Worldwatch Institute Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
Kees Olie, PhD, Retired, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Bindu Panikkar, PhD, Research Associate, Arctic Institute of North America, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Richard Peterson, PhD, Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Arianna Piersanti, PhD, Lead Chemist, Food of Environmental Control Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell-Umbria e dell Marche, Perugia, Italy
Merle Plassmann, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Anuschka Polder, PhD, Scientist, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway
Malte Posselt, BSc, MS Student, German Federal Environment Agency, Berlin, Germany
Deborah O. Raphael, Director, San Francisco Department of the Environment, San Francisco, California, USA
Shay Reicher, PhD, Risk Assessment Director, Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv, Israel
Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, MEng, PhD Candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Crystal Reul-Chen, DEnv, Senior Environmental Scientist, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California, USA
David Roberts, PhD, Kenan Professor of Physics, Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
Mary Roberts, PhD, Professor, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA
Camilla Rodrigues, PhD, Researcher, Environmental Sanitation Technology Company, San Paulo, Brazil
Ott Roots, Dr sc nat ETH, Director of the Institute/Leading Research Scientist, Estonian Environmental Research Institute, Tallinn, Estonia
Maria Ros Rodriguez, Laboratory Technician, Instituto de Química Orgánica General-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain
Anna Rotander, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Man–Technology–Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; and National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Ruthann Rudel, MS, Director of Research, Silent Spring Institute, Newton, Massachusetts, USA
Christina Rudén, PhD, Professor, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Andreas Béguin Safron, MSc, PhD Candidate, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Amina Salamova, PhD, Research Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
Samira Salihovic, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Johanna Sandahl, MS, President, Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden
Erik Sandell, Consulting Specialist, Nab Labs Oy, Espoo, Finland
Andreas Schaeffer, PhD, Institute Director, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
Julia Schaletzky, PhD, Senior Group Leader, Cytokinetics, South San Francisco, California, USA
Arnold Schecter, PhD, Professor, School of Public Health, University of Texas–Dallas Campus, Dallas, Texas, USA
Ted Schettler, MD, MPH, Science Director, Science and Environmental Health Network, Ames, Iowa, USA
Margret Schlumpf, Dr sc nat ETH, Co-Director, Group for Reproductive, Endocrine and Environmental Toxicology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Peter Schmid, PhD, Senior Scientist, Department of Organic Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing, Dübendorf, Switzerland
Lara Schultes, MSc, PhD Student, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Susan Shaw, PhD, Professor, School of Public Health, University at Albany–State University of New York, Albany, New York, USA; and Director, Marine Environmental Research Institute, Blue Hill, Maine, USA
Omotayo Sindiku, Research Assistant, Basel Convention Coordinating Center, Ibadan, Nigeria
Line Småstuen Haug, PhD, Senior Scientist, Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
Anna Sobek, PhD, Researcher, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Ana Sousa, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
Martin Sperl, Technician, Austria Metall AG, Ranshofen, Austria
Thomas Steiner, PhD, CEO, MonitoringSystems GmbH, Pressbaum, Austria
Christine Steinlin, PhD Student, Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Alex Stone, ScD, Senior Chemist, Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, Lacey, Washington, USA
William Stubbings, PhD Student, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
Roxana Sühring, PhD Student, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lüneburg, Germany
Kimmo Suominen, PhD, Senior Researcher, Finish Food Safety Authority, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
Rebecca Sutton, PhD, Senior Scientist, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, California, USA
Joel Svedlund, BSc, Sustainability Manager, Klättermusen AB, Åre, Sweden
David Szabo, PhD, Senior Scientist, Research and Development, Reynolds American, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
Öner Tatli, Lab Manager, A&G P¸r Analysis Laboratory, Izmir, Turkey
Neeta Thacker, MSc, PhD, Former Chief Scientist and Quality Manager, Analytical Instruments Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, India
Dien Nguyen Thanh, PhD Student, Environment Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Joao Paulo Machado Torres, PhD, Associate Professor, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Matthew Trass, PhD, Research Scientist, Phenomenex, Torrance, California, USA
Theodora Tsongas, PhD, MS, Environmental Health Scientist and Consultant, Portland, Oregon, USA
Mary Turyk, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Anthony C. Tweedale, MS, Consultant, Rebutting Industry Science with Knowledge Consultancy, Eastpointe, Michigan, USA
Marta Venier, PhD, Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
Robin Vestergren, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Environmental Chemistry, NILU–Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway
Stefan Voorspoels, PhD, Research Manager, Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Mol, Belgium
Shu-Li Wang, PhD, Investigator and Professor, Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Chunan, Miaoli, Taiwan
Glenys Webster, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Larry Weiss, MD, Chief Marketing Officer, AOBiome, LLC, San Francisco, California, USA
Philip White, Organics Analyst, Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland
Karin Wiberg, PhD, Professor, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Gayle Windham, PhD, Research Scientist, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Control, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA
Hendrik Wolschke, PhD Student, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht-Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Germany
Bo Yuan, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Elena Zaffonato, Organics Analyst, Chelab Sri, Resana Treviso, Italy
Lingyan Zhu, PhD, Professor, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
Robert Zoeller, PhD, Professor, Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Environmental Health Perspectives
Volume 123Issue 5May 2015
Pages: A107 - A111
PubMed: 25932614

History

Published online: 1 May 2015

Authors

Affiliations

Arlene Blum
Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, California, USA
Simona A. Balan
Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, California, USA
Martin Scheringer
Leuphana University, Lüneburg, Germany
Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Xenia Trier
Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Gretta Goldenman
European Centre on Sustainable Policies for Human and Environmental Rights, Brussels, Belgium
Ian T. Cousins
Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Miriam Diamond
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Tony Fletcher
Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Christopher Higgins
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA
Avery E. Lindeman
Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, California, USA
Graham Peaslee
Chemistry Department, Hope College, Holland, Michigan, USA
Pim de Voogt
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Zhanyun Wang
Safety and Environmental Technology Group, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Roland Weber
POPs Environmental Consulting, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany

Notes

Competing Interests

The views expressed in this statement are solely those of the authors and signatories. The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.

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