Open access
Research Article
1 March 1984

General aspects of cadmium: transport, uptake and metabolism by the kidney.

Publication: Environmental Health Perspectives
Volume 54
Pages 13 - 20

Abstract

Cadmium taken up from lung and gastrointestinal tract is transported via blood to liver and kidney. On long-term exposure to cadmium, renal tubular dysfunction develops in humans and experimental animals. Data from animal experiments demonstrate that initially after exposure cadmium in blood is bound to albumin and proteins with higher molecular weight. Such cadmium is mainly taken up in liver. For a few days after exposure cadmium exists as metallothionein in plasma and blood cells. After both single and long-term administration of cadmium bound to metallothionein, cadmium is taken up by the kidney. The concentration of metallothionein-bound cadmium in plasma is quite low due to continuous renal clearance. Cadmium from metallothionein is taken up in renal tubules by pinocytosis and subsequently degraded in lysosomes, thereby releasing cadmium which stimulates de novo synthesis of metallothionein but also binds to reabsorbed metallothionein. Catabolizing and rebinding are continuous and prevent excretion of cadmium. Because of differences in transport, renal metabolic handling forms of cadmium are also different for different forms of cadmium administered and rate of administration. A single dose of metallothionein-bound cadmium given intravenously is almost immediately and completely taken up in the renal tubule. Under such conditions, resynthesis and rebinding processes are insufficient to sequester cadmium from sensitive tissue receptors, and renal damage occurs at total tissue concentrations much lower than when renal cadmium concentrations rise slowly. This explains the wide range (10-200 micrograms Cd/g wet weight) of cadmium in the renal cortex that associated with renal tubular dysfunction in experimental animals.

Formats available

You can view the full content in the following formats:

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Environmental Health Perspectives
Volume 54March 1984
Pages: 13 - 20
PubMed: 6734552

History

Published online: 1 March 1984

Authors

Affiliations

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

About Article Metrics


Citations

Download citation

If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click DOWNLOAD.

Cited by

  • Gut as the target tissue of mercury and the extraintestinal effects, Toxicology, 10.1016/j.tox.2022.153396, 484, (153396), (2023).
  • The association between Day-1 urine cadmium excretion and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A multi-institutional cohort study, International Journal of Cardiology, 10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.09.011, 371, (397-401), (2023).
  • Metallothionein and Cadmium Toxicology—Historical Review and Commentary, Biomolecules, 10.3390/biom12030360, 12, 3, (360), (2022).
  • Toxicology of metals: Overview, definitions, concepts, and trends, Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 10.1016/B978-0-12-823292-7.00029-2, (1-14), (2022).
  • Cadmium, Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 10.1016/B978-0-12-822946-0.00006-4, (141-196), (2022).
  • Associations of trace element levels in paired serum, whole blood, and tissue: an example of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 10.1007/s11356-022-24960-z, 30, 13, (38052-38062), (2022).
  • Assessment of heavy metal accumulations and health risk potentials in tomatoes grown in the discharge area of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 10.1080/09603123.2020.1762071, 32, 2, (393-405), (2020).
  • Cadmium exposure is associated with reduced grip strength in US adults, Environmental Research, 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108819, 180, (108819), (2020).
  • Chronic cadmium exposure in Japanese quails perturbs serum biochemical parameters and enzyme activity, Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 10.1080/01480545.2019.1614024, 43, 1, (37-42), (2019).
  • Metal Exposures and Human Health—Historical Development, Current Importance, and Toxicological Concepts for Prevention, Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures, 10.1016/B978-0-12-804227-4.00001-7, (1-29), (2019).

View Options

View options

PDF

View PDF

Get Access

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media