Skip to content

Environmental Health Perspectives

Facebook Page EHP Twitter Feed Open Access icon  

Brief Communication June 2017 | Volume 125 | Issue 6

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP1788

The Florence Statement on Triclosan and Triclocarban

Rolf U. Halden,1 Avery E. Lindeman,2 Allison E. Aiello,3 David Andrews,4 William A. Arnold,5 Patricia Fair,6 Rebecca E. Fuoco,7 Laura A. Geer,8 Paula I. Johnson,9 Rainer Lohmann,10 Kristopher McNeill,11 Victoria P. Sacks,12 Ted Schettler,13 Roland Weber,14 R. Thomas Zoeller,15 and Arlene Blum16
Author Affiliations open

1Biodesign Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

2Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, California, USA

3Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

4Environmental Working Group, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

5Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

6Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, South Carolina, USA

7Health Research Communication Strategies, Los Angeles, California, USA

8Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, State University of New York, Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, New York, USA

9California Safe Cosmetics Program, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA

10University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA

11Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

12Independent Researcher, Berkeley, California, USA

13Science and Environmental Health Network, Ames, Iowa, USA

14POPs Environmental Consulting, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany

15University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

16Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA

PDF icon PDF Version (326 KB)

  • Summary:
    The Florence Statement on Triclosan and Triclocarban documents a consensus of more than 200 scientists and medical professionals on the hazards of and lack of demonstrated benefit from common uses of triclosan and triclocarban. These chemicals may be used in thousands of personal care and consumer products as well as in building materials. Based on extensive peer-reviewed research, this statement concludes that triclosan and triclocarban are environmentally persistent endocrine disruptors that bioaccumulate in and are toxic to aquatic and other organisms. Evidence of other hazards to humans and ecosystems from triclosan and triclocarban is presented along with recommendations intended to prevent future harm from triclosan, triclocarban, and antimicrobial substances with similar properties and effects. Because antimicrobials can have unintended adverse health and environmental impacts, they should only be used when they provide an evidence-based health benefit. Greater transparency is needed in product formulations, and before an antimicrobial is incorporated into a product, the long-term health and ecological impacts should be evaluated.
  • Received: 17 February 2017
    Revised: 06 April 2017
    Accepted: 08 April 2017
    Published: 20 June 2017

    Address Correspondence to A. E. Lindeman, Green Science Policy Institute, P.O. Box 9127 Berkeley, CA 94709. Telephone: (510) 898-1739; E-mail:

    Note to readers with disabilities: EHP strives to ensure that all journal content is accessible to all readers. However, some figures and Supplemental Material published in EHP articles may not conform to 508 standards due to the complexity of the information being presented. If you need assistance accessing journal content, please contact Our staff will work with you to assess and meet your accessibility needs within 3 working days.


In September 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned nineteen antimicrobial ingredients, including triclosan and triclocarban, in over-the-counter consumer antiseptic wash products based on insufficient evidence demonstrating their safety for long-term daily use and that they reduce the spread of illness and infection. Many of those 19 chemicals have been in widespread use for decades, and many are still allowed in a number of other over-the-counter personal care products as well as in consumer and building products. The FDA first indicated in a 1974 Tentative Final Monograph that there was insufficient evidence to show that triclosan was effective and safe for long-term use (Halden 2014). The FDA’s decades-long path to issuing a final rule, and the narrow scope of the September 2016 Final Rule (FDA 2016), indicate that existing regulatory practices are not sufficient to protect human and ecosystem health from adverse impacts of antimicrobial chemicals. Scientists from both academia and nonprofit organizations coauthored The Florence Statement in 2016 to share current scientific research on two widely used antimicrobial chemicals and to motivate broader consideration of the long-term impacts of antimicrobial use (see Appendix I). The Statement was introduced at DIOXIN 2016, the 36th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants in Florence, Italy, and has been signed by more than 200 international scientists and medical professionals (see Appendix II).

The Florence Statement on Triclosan and Triclocarban

As scientists, medical doctors, and public health professionals, we are concerned about the continued widespread use of the chlorinated antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban for the following reasons:

  1. Triclosan and triclocarban are used as antimicrobials, a class of chemicals present in >2,000 products including soaps, toothpastes, detergents, clothing, toys, carpets, plastics, and paints. In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan or triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease.
  2. Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide.
  3. Triclosan and triclocarban persist in the environment and are a source of toxic and carcinogenic compounds including dioxins, chloroform, and chlorinated anilines.
  4. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their transformation products and byproducts bioaccumulate in aquatic plants and animals, and triclosan partitions into human blood and breast milk.
  5. Triclosan and triclocarban have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms.
  6. Humans are exposed to triclosan and triclocarban through direct contact with personal care products and from other sources including food, drinking water, and dust. Triclosan has been detected in the urine of a majority of humans tested.
  7. Triclosan and triclocarban are endocrine disruptors and are associated with reproductive and developmental impacts in animal and in vitro studies. Potential implications for human reproduction and development are of concern and merit further study.
  8. Human epidemiology and animal studies suggest triclosan exposure can increase sensitivity to allergens.
  9. Overuse of triclosan may contribute to antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance and may modify the microbiome.
  10. A number of authorities, including the FDA, have restricted the use of triclosan and triclocarban in certain types of soaps. These and other antimicrobial chemicals are generally not restricted from use in other products.

We therefore call on the international community to limit the production and use of triclosan and triclocarban and to question the use of other antimicrobials. We urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the actions recommended below.


  1. Avoid the use of triclosan, triclocarban, and other antimicrobial chemicals except where they provide an evidence-based health benefit (e.g., physician-prescribed toothpaste for treating gum disease) and there is adequate evidence demonstrating they are safe.
  2. Where antimicrobials are necessary, use safer alternatives that are not persistent and pose no risk to humans or ecosystems.
  3. Label all products containing triclosan, triclocarban, and other antimicrobials, even in cases where no health claims are made.
  4. Evaluate the safety of antimicrobials and their transformation products throughout the entire product life cycle, including manufacture, long-term use, disposal, and environmental release.


The content of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of their organizations or funding sources. R.U.H.’s contribution to this project was supported in part by grant number R01ES020889 and its supplements from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and by grant number LTR 05/01/12 from the Virginia G. Piper Charitable Trust. A.E.A. received an unrestricted research grant from Gojo; Gojo had no role in the support of this research or any of A.E.A.’s research related to triclosan. W.A.A. received a grant from the National Science Foundation [CBET 0,967,163 (Using triclosan and polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins to elucidate the importance of natural and anthropogenic sources of OH-PBDEs in fresh and estuarine waters)] that ended in 2014. The Green Science Policy Institute [a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization] received funding from New York Community Trust that was used to support the contributions of A.E.L., R.E.F., V.P.S., and A.B. to this project. Green Science Policy Institute has no actual or potential competing financial interests relating to this publication. D.A. is employed by Environmental Working Group and has no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare. T.S. works with Science and Environmental Health Network and has no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare. All other authors have no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare.

Appendix I: Supporting Information

1. Triclosan and triclocarban are used as antimicrobials, a class of chemicals present in >2,000 products including soaps, toothpastes, detergents, clothing, toys, carpets, plastics, and paints (Halden 2014; Smith 2013). In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan and triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2003; FDA 2016).

Triclosan and triclocarban are not well regulated and may be found in >2,000 consumer and building products (Halden 2014). In 1998, the worldwide annual production of triclosan was approximately 1,500 tons, with a majority produced in Europe (350 tons) and the United States (450 tons) (Dhillon et al. 2015). In 2006, an estimated 450 tons of triclosan was used within the European Union (EU) [Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2010]. In 2007, an estimated 85% of the total volume of triclosan in the EU was used in personal care and cosmetic products (SCCS 2010). Triclocarban has been primarily used in bar soaps at concentrations ranging from approximately 0.5% to 2% by weight (Halden 2014; Ye et al. 2016).

Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of triclosan and triclocarban by the general population has no significant health benefits for reducing common respiratory and gastrointestinal infections (Aiello et al. 2007, 2008). A 2003 report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee concluded, “No evidence is available to suggest that use of [antimicrobial-impregnated articles and consumer items bearing antimicrobial labeling] will make consumers and patients healthier or prevent disease” (CDC 2003).

According to the FDA, which is responsible for regulation of foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, and similar products, there is no evidence that antibacterial soaps are more effective than nonantibacterial soap and water (FDA 2016). This is likely because the contact time during typical hand washing (an average of 6 s) is too short to deliver measurable benefits (Borchgrevink et al. 2013) and because the antibacterial ingredient is highly diluted during the washing process.

2. Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment (Heidler and Halden 2009) and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide (Halden and Paull 2005; Singer et al. 2002).

Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used in products intended for washing [e.g., an estimated 96% of triclosan is used in products that are intentionally disposed of down the drain, such as soaps and detergents (Reiss et al. 2002)]. These substances are also used in products that may be frequently washed (e.g., textiles, food contact materials, plastic surfaces). A large amount of triclosan and triclocarban is therefore discharged directly to conventional wastewater treatment plants (Bester 2005; Halden and Paull 2005). During wastewater treatment, these chemicals partition preferentially into sewage sludge (Bester 2003, 2005; Heidler et al. 2006).

An analysis of U.S. sewage sludge found triclosan and triclocarban at high levels, on average in the tens of milligrams per kilogram dry weight [Halden 2014; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2009]. In the United States, ∼15% of sewage sludge is incinerated, 30% is deposited in landfills, and 55% is deposited on land where the antimicrobial compounds and their transformation products may enter adjacent surface waters (Beecher et al. 2007; Buth et al. 2011). Through land application of biosolids, antimicrobials can also end up in livestock feed and in crops destined for human consumption (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Prosser et al. 2014).

Persisting fractions of triclosan and triclocarban that do not partition into the sludge are discharged to surface waters via effluent, where they can reach levels of thousands of nanograms per liter (Bester 2005; Buth et al. 2011; Coogan et al. 2007; McAvoy et al. 2002; Singer et al. 2002).

Triclosan and triclocarban have been detected in the environment throughout the world. Triclosan has been detected in both raw and finished drinking water (Loraine and Pettigrove 2006), in ocean water (Xie et al. 2008), and in fresh water (Kolpin et al. 2002). A nationwide survey detected triclosan in ∼60% of U.S. streams (Kolpin et al. 2002). Triclocarban is expected to be similarly prevalent (Halden and Paull 2005). In surface waters, even when discharged at nanograms per liter concentrations, triclosan and triclocarban can concentrate and accumulate in sediments (Anger et al. 2013; Buth et al. 2010; Cantwell et al. 2010; Higgins et al. 2009; Kerrigan et al. 2015; Miller et al. 2008; Venkatesan et al. 2012).

3. Triclosan and triclocarban persist in the environment (Miller et al. 2008) and are a source of toxic and carcinogenic compounds including dioxins, chloroform, and chlorinated anilines (Buth et al. 2010; Ding et al. 2013; Fiss et al. 2007).

Triclosan and triclocarban are persistent in the environment. Both compounds are predicted to have half-lives on the order of 60d in water, 120d in soil, and 540d in sediment (Halden and Paull 2005).

Sediment cores indicate long-term preservation of triclosan and triclocarban dating to approximately 1964 (when triclosan was patented) (Anger et al. 2013; Bedoux et al. 2012; Cantwell et al. 2010; Kerrigan et al. 2015; Miller et al. 2008; Singer et al. 2002). In biosolids-amended soils, triclocarban and triclosan can persist for extended periods of time while exhibiting very slow or no measurable degradation (Langdon et al. 2012; Walters et al. 2010). Triclosan may also be transformed to methyl triclosan or to other products (Davis et al. 2015; Langdon et al. 2012; Walters et al. 2010). Methyl triclosan may be more persistent than triclosan (Balmer et al. 2004; Coogan et al. 2007), and it has been consistently detected in surface waters and sediments (Bester 2005; Sacks and Lohmann 2011).

Triclosan is a “pre-dioxin” and is associated with formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) throughout its life cycle. Triclosan contains detectable contaminant levels of polychlorinated dioxins and furans, including toxic and carcinogenic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs, which are formed in amounts that vary with the quality of production technology [Menoutis and Parisi 2002; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2013; Zheng et al. 2008; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2012]. The high persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of these dioxins and furans in the environment is well-established (Sinkkonen and Paasivirta 2000; Van den Berg et al. 2006). Furthermore, triclosan undergoes conversion to 2,8-dibenzodichloro-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in water when exposed to natural sunlight (Aranami and Readman 2007; Latch et al. 2003) and during heating and combustion (Kanetoshi et al. 1987, 1988). In a recent study using an artificial skin model, topically applied triclosan transformed into 2,8-DCDD under ultraviolet irradiation (Alvarez-Rivera et al. 2016). Chlorinated triclosan derivatives (formed during chlorine disinfection of wastewater and drinking water) transform into tri- and tetra-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sunlight-exposed surface waters (Buth et al. 2009, 2010) and upon heating and combustion (Kanetoshi et al. 1987; Kanetoshi et al. 1988). Calculations suggest that incineration of sewage sludge containing triclosan and chlorinated triclosan derivatives contributes significantly to total dioxin emissions in the United States (Doudrick et al. 2010).

In water disinfection processes, triclosan can react with free chlorine to produce chloroform (Rule et al. 2005), a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA 2001) that is also recognized by the State of California as a developmental toxicant [State of California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) 2017]. In a study testing household dishwashing soaps, lotions, and body washes in chlorinated water under simulated normal household use conditions, all of the products containing triclosan produced either chloroform or other chlorinated byproducts (Fiss et al. 2007). The results suggest that under some conditions, the use of triclosan in such products could potentially increase chloroform exposure to nearly double the background levels in tap water.

Triclocarban degrades via aerobic biodegradation and photolysis into 4-chloroaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline (Ding et al. 2013; Miller et al. 2010). 4-Chloroaniline is recognized by the State of California as known to cause cancer (CalEPA 2017).

4. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their transformation products and byproducts bioaccumulate in aquatic plants (Coogan et al. 2007) and animals (Coogan and La Point 2008; Fair et al. 2009), and triclosan partitions into human blood and breast milk (Allmyr et al. 2006).

Triclosan and triclocarban are highly hydrophobic and bioaccumulate in organisms living in aquatic systems exposed to effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Triclosan has been detected in wild bottlenose dolphins at levels similar to those in humans (Fair et al. 2009), and it has also been detected at high levels in fish (Adolfsson-Erici et al. 2002; Valters et al. 2005). These levels are potentially high enough to cause harm (Meador et al. 2016). Triclosan was recently detected in the eggs of skimmers, seabirds that serve as sensitive indicators of coastal health and of contaminant threats to fish-eating birds and animals (Millow et al. 2015). Methyl triclosan, an even more lipophilic and stable bacterial transformation product of triclosan, has been detected in fish at levels considerably higher than in the surrounding water (Balmer et al. 2004; Leiker et al. 2009). The bioaccumulation and slow conversion of methyl triclosan in lower-level consumers such as catfish could transfer environmental triclosan to higher-level consumers in the food chain, including humans (James et al. 2012). Triclocarban bioaccumulates in freshwater worms (Higgins et al. 2009) and fish (Schebb et al. 2011a). Triclosan, methyl triclosan, and triclocarban all bioaccumulate rapidly in algae and snails exposed to wastewater treatment effluent with calculated bioaccumulation factors in the thousands (Coogan et al. 2007; Coogan and La Point 2008).

In biosolids-amended soil ecosystems, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and triclocarban bioaccumulate in earthworms (Higgins et al. 2011; Kinney et al. 2008; Macherius et al. 2014), the basis of many terrestrial food webs. Phytoaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban has been observed in certain vegetable crops grown in biosolids-amended soils. Calculations suggest that potential human exposure from contaminated vegetable consumption is less than exposure from personal care product use but greater than exposure from consumption of drinking water (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Mathews et al. 2014).

Upon human exposure and uptake, triclosan and triclocarban are metabolized and excreted by the body within 36–72h (Sandborgh-Englund et al. 2006; Schebb et al. 2011b, 2012). One study calculated a terminal plasma half-life of 21h for triclosan (Sandborgh-Englund et al. 2006). Blood-borne triclosan and triclocarban can cross the placenta, and triclosan and its metabolites have been detected in umbilical cord blood at birth (Allmyr et al. 2006; Pycke et al. 2014; Shekhar et al. 2017), raising concerns about prenatal exposure to the developing fetus. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their metabolites have also been detected in human milk samples (Adolfsson-Erici et al. 2002; Allmyr et al. 2006; Dayan 2007; Toms et al. 2011). For example, in one population sample (n=151), triclosan levels were detected in >93% of milk samples over a wide range of concentrations (Toms et al. 2011). The ability of triclosan to partition into human milk raises concerns about impacts from exposure on nursing infants.

5. Triclosan and triclocarban have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms (Chalew and Halden 2009; Tamura et al. 2013).

The continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to triclosan and triclocarban, coupled with their bioaccumulation potential, have led to detectable levels of triclosan and triclocarban throughout aquatic food chains in species such as algae, crustaceans, fish, and marine mammals (Adolfsson-Erici et al. 2002; Chalew and Halden 2009; Fair et al. 2009; Meador et al. 2016). Highly sensitive indicator organisms, such as algae and crustaceans, experience potentially harmful exposures to triclosan and triclocarban in surface waters receiving raw and treated sewage (Chalew and Halden 2009). Benthic organisms such as worms, crabs, and shellfish can be exposed to triclosan and triclocarban via particulate matter and sediments (Miller et al. 2008).

In laboratory studies of algae, crustaceans, and fish, both triclosan and triclocarban have been shown to exhibit acute and subchronic toxicity at concentrations found in the environment (Tamura et al. 2013; Xu et al. 2015). Triclosan exposure inhibits algal growth (Orvos et al. 2002), which can alter aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Triclosan is acutely toxic to aquatic macrobiota at microgram per liter (μg/L) concentrations (Franz et al. 2008; Ishibashi et al. 2004; Ricart et al. 2010; von der Ohe et al. 2012), with acute toxicity values ranging from 1.4 μg/L to 3,000 μg/L (von der Ohe et al. 2012).

Triclosan affects reproduction and development in some fish (Dann and Hontela 2011) and may interfere with the action of thyroid hormones in amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations (Veldhoen et al. 2006). Triclosan and triclocarban can also affect reproduction in snails at environmentally relevant concentrations (Geiß et al. 2016; Giudice and Young 2010).

6. Humans are exposed to triclosan and triclocarban through direct contact with personal care products (Queckenberg et al. 2010; Schebb et al. 2011b) and from other sources including food, drinking water, and dust (Aryal and Reinhold 2011). Triclosan has been detected in the urine of a majority of humans tested (Calafat et al. 2008).

Human exposure to triclosan occurs primarily from the topical application and use of personal care products such as lotions, soaps, toothpastes, and mouthwashes (Bhargava and Leonard 1996; Moss et al. 2000; Queckenberg et al. 2010). Minor routes of exposure could include contaminated food and drinking water (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Holling et al. 2012; Li et al. 2010; Loraine and Pettigrove 2006; Macherius et al. 2012; Wu et al. 2010, 2013) and indoor dust (Fan et al. 2010; Geens et al. 2009).

A large U.S. national survey found triclosan in the urine of the majority of people tested (Calafat et al. 2008). Other studies have measured triclosan in the urine of pregnant women (Meeker et al. 2013; Mortensen et al. 2014; Pycke et al. 2014), children (Wolff et al. 2007), and a large sampling of people in Denmark (Frederiksen et al. 2014). Triclosan has been detected in breast milk (Dayan 2007; Toms et al. 2011; Allmyr et al. 2006), serum and plasma (Allmyr et al. 2006, 2008; Sandborgh-Englund et al. 2006), cord blood (Pycke et al. 2014), amniotic fluid (Philippat et al. 2013; Shekhar et al. 2017), and fingernails and toenails (Yin et al. 2016).

Dermal exposure from personal care products is believed to be the main route of human exposure to triclocarban (Ye et al. 2011). A human study showed a small but significant amount of triclocarban was absorbed during showering for 15 min with triclocarban-containing antibacterial soap (Schebb et al. 2011b). In addition, minor routes of triclocarban exposure may include contaminated food (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Macherius et al. 2012; Wu et al. 2010, 2013). In a recent study of 209 adults living in China, triclocarban was detected in the urine and in the nails of 99% and 100% of study participants, respectively (Yin et al. 2016). Triclocarban was detected in 86% of urine samples and in 23% of cord blood samples from 181 pregnant U.S. women between 2007 and 2009 (Pycke et al. 2014). In a 2012 study of 158 U.S. adults with no known exposure to triclocarban, the compound was detected in 35% of urine samples (Zhou et al. 2012). In a smaller 2011 study, triclocarban was detected in 50% of serum samples and in 28% of urine samples from U.S. adults (Ye et al. 2011).

Monitoring and explorative studies of other potential sources of triclosan and triclocarban exposure are warranted (Ginsberg and Balk 2016).

7. Triclosan and triclocarban are endocrine disruptors and are associated with reproductive and developmental impacts in animal and in vitro studies (Chen et al. 2008; Johnson et al. 2016; Wang and Tian 2015). Potential implications for human reproduction and development are of concern and merit further study.

Triclosan and triclocarban have been shown to interfere with estrogen and androgen systems in mammalian models (Chen et al. 2008; Duleba et al. 2011; Kumar et al. 2009; Stoker et al. 2010) and in vitro (Ahn et al. 2008; Gee et al. 2008; Henry and Fair 2013; Huang et al. 2014). In vitro screening assays suggest that triclosan can interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) in certain cell types at relatively low (nanomolar) concentrations (Ahn et al. 2008). In vitro studies have shown a weak estrogenic effect of triclosan and triclocarban in the ER reporter gene assay (Huang et al. 2014) and in MCF7-BOS breast cancer cells (Henry and Fair 2013). Triclosan has also shown estrogenic and androgenic activity in vitro in breast cancer cells at environmentally relevant concentrations (Gee et al. 2008). However, in vivo studies suggest that the estrogenic effects of triclosan may not be a result of direct binding with the estrogen receptor. Triclosan has been shown to enhance the estrogenic activity of synthetic estrogenic compounds (Louis et al. 2013) and to increase estradiol (Pollock et al. 2016) and bisphenol A (Pollock et al. 2014) uptake in certain tissues in adult mice. In male roaches, co-exposure to triclosan and to other anti-androgenic chemicals enhanced the feminizing effect of the estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol on reproductive duct development (Lange et al. 2015). These studies suggest that the estrogenic effect of triclosan in vivo may be due to inhibition of estrogen metabolism. An in vitro study with sheep placental tissue also showed that triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estrogen sulfotransferase (James et al. 2010).

In rodent studies, triclosan exposure has been associated with reduced testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and sperm production (Kumar et al. 2009), as well as with implantation failure (Crawford and DeCatanzaro 2012) and spontaneous abortion (Wang et al. 2015).The varying results of in vivo studies to date may result from the use of different rodent strains and experimental procedures (Wang and Tian 2015).

The possible effects of triclosan and triclocarban on human endocrine and reproductive systems have not been sufficiently studied. There is emerging evidence of associations between triclosan exposure and reduced semen quality (Zhu et al. 2016) and reduced inhibin B and luteinizing hormones in men (Den Hond et al. 2015) and with longer time-to-pregnancy in a large retrospective study of pregnant women (Velez et al. 2015).

Triclosan can disrupt the thyroid hormone system in animal models (Fang et al. 2015; Paul et al. 2010; Stoker et al. 2010; Zorrilla et al. 2009). A meta-analysis of rodent data found significant and dose-dependent reductions in serum thyroxine after early postnatal administration of triclosan (Johnson et al. 2016). Perinatal triclosan exposure can reduce blood levels of maternal, fetal, and neonatal thyroxine levels in rodents (Axelstad et al. 2013; Paul et al. 2013). Potential effects of prenatal exposure on thyroxine levels should be carefully considered because even small reductions in thyroxine in pregnant women can have adverse effects on the neurodevelopment of children (Ghassabian et al. 2014; Henrichs et al. 2013; Miller et al. 2009; Wise et al. 2012; Woodruff et al. 2008).

Few human studies have examined the potential impacts of prenatal triclosan and triclocarban exposure on fetal growth and development. However, there is suggestive evidence that prenatal triclosan exposure is associated with reduced fetal growth late in pregnancy (Philippat et al. 2014) and with smaller head circumference at birth in boys (Lassen et al. 2016; Philippat et al. 2014) and that prenatal triclocarban exposure is associated with decreased gestational age at birth (Geer et al. 2017).

8. Human epidemiology (Spanier et al. 2014) and animal studies (Anderson et al. 2013) suggest triclosan exposure can increase sensitivity to allergens.

Large cross-sectional analyses of U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants have found positive associations between urinary triclosan concentrations in children and aeroallergen sensitization (Savage et al. 2012; Spanier et al. 2014), atopic asthma (Spanier et al. 2014), diagnosis of allergic rhinitis or other allergies in those ≤18 y old (Clayton et al. 2011), and food sensitization (Savage et al. 2012). Similarly, a large cross-sectional analysis of Norwegian children found an association between urinary triclosan concentrations and allergic sensitization and rhinitis (Bertelsen et al. 2013). Among both child and adult NHANES participants with asthma, urinary triclosan concentration was associated with increased risk of asthma exacerbation in the previous year (Savage et al. 2014).

Animal studies support these findings and suggest that although triclosan may not be an allergen itself, it may act as an adjuvant and enhance allergic responses to a known allergen (Anderson et al. 2013). In mouse models, dermal exposure to triclosan at concentrations similar to those used in consumer products enhanced the hypersensitivity response to the egg-white allergen ovalbumin (Anderson et al. 2013), promoted sensitization and anaphylaxis to peanut (Tobar et al. 2016), promoted sensitization to the milk allergen alpha-lactalbumin (Tobar et al. 2016), and induced stimulation of the immune system (Anderson et al. 2016). Demonstrating a potential mechanism for this immune alteration, dermal triclosan exposure changed gene expression and cytokine levels promoting a food sensitization phenotype in mice and in a human skin model (Marshall et al. 2015).

9. Overuse of triclosan may contribute to antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance (Giuliano and Rybak 2015) and may modify the microbiome (Hu et al. 2016).

Concerns about triclosan-induced cross-resistance to antibiotics used in human medicine were voiced as early as 2001, although the extent to which triclosan and triclocarban contribute to antibiotic resistance is not yet clear (Halden 2014; Hartmann et al. 2016; Yazdankhah et al. 2006). One large randomized controlled trial that examined bacterial flora isolated from hands showed decreased susceptibility over time to triclosan in the studied community (Aiello et al. 2004). There is evidence that bacteria that develop resistance to triclosan can also exhibit lowered susceptibilities to other antimicrobial agents (Braoudaki and Hilton 2004). Triclosan in stream sediments has been shown to trigger increases in triclosan resistance and changes in benthic bacterial community composition (Drury et al. 2013). The clinical significance of these observations is unclear, but a legitimate concern remains: antimicrobials may exacerbate the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics (Carey and McNamara 2015; Hartmann et al. 2016; Pycke et al. 2010).

Recently, several animal studies have suggested that exposure to triclosan modifies the microbiome, including in the gut and intranasally (Gaulke et al. 2016; Hu et al. 2016; Syed et al. 2014). However, longer-term human studies are needed to identify the impact of triclosan and other antimicrobial substances on the human microbiome both on the skin and in the gut.

10. A number of authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, have restricted the use of triclosan and triclocarban in certain types of soaps [European Commission (EC) 2016; FDA 2016]. These and other antimicrobial chemicals are generally not restricted from use in other products.

Several jurisdictions have recognized the risks from triclosan and triclocarban and have taken steps to reduce their use. Following an evaluation of triclosan by the Biocidal Products Committee of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the European Commission (EC) decided in 2016 that triclosan is not approved for use in human hygiene biocidal products (ECHA 2015; EC 2016). Beginning in February 2017, triclosan will no longer be available in such products in the EU. Triclosan has also been banned from use in consumer sanitizing and cleansing products by the state of Minnesota, effective January 2017 (State of Minnesota 2016). In September 2016, the FDA issued a final rule, effective in 2017, that over-the-counter consumer antiseptic wash products containing the antibacterial active ingredients triclosan and triclocarban, or any of seventeen other antimicrobial ingredients, can no longer be marketed because they “are not generally recognized as safe and effective” (FDA 2016). In the United States, the FDA regulates the use of antimicrobials in personal care products and medical devices, whereas the U.S. EPA regulates the pesticidal uses of antimicrobials in other products (Johnson et al. 2016).

Triclosan is being phased out of certain products by Procter & Gamble, Johnson & Johnson, and other manufacturers. The use of triclosan and triclocarban may continue in household, building, and other products not covered under existing restrictions.

Despite regulatory restrictions on triclosan, triclocarban, and certain other antimicrobials, the overall market for antimicrobial products has been predicted to grow (Halden 2014; Smith 2013). It is not yet clear what impact the 2016 EC decision, the FDA Final Rule, and other authoritative actions may have on market growth. Alternative antimicrobial substances may be used in place of triclosan and triclocarban in personal care, consumer, and building products. These replacement substances may have little to no publicly available safety information.

Appendix II: Signatories

Institutional affiliations are provided for identification purposes only.

Ovokeroye Abafe, PhD, Research Scientist, Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Morteza Abbaszadegan, PhD, Professor and Director, Civil, Environmental and Sustainable Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Amirhossein Rezaei Adaryani, PhD Student in Infrastructure and Environmental Systems, Department of Civil Engineering, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, USA

Sam Adu-Kumi, PhD, Director, Chemicals Control and Management Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Accra, Ghana

Diana Aga, PhD, Professor, Chemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA

C. Athena Aktipis, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Pedro Alvarez, PhD, George R. Brown Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

Gangadhar Andaluri, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Dana Armstrong, MSc, PhD Student, Marine-Estuarine-Environmental Sciences (MEES), University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

Abel Arkenbout, PhD, CEO, Toxicowatch Foundation, Harlingen, The Netherlands

Misha Askren, MD, Partner Emeritus, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Family Medicine, Sierra Club, Environmental Defense Fund, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Jannicke Bakkejord, MSc, Chief Engineer, POPs Laboratory, National Institute of Food and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen, Norway

Jose Luis Balcazar, PhD, Research Scientist, Water Quality Area, Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain

William Ball, PhD, Professor, Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Damià Barceló, PhD, Director, Water Quality, Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain

Morton Barlaz, PhD, Professor and Head, Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Miriam Barlow, PhD, Associate Professor, Molecular and Cell Biology, UC Merced, Merced, CA, USA

Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, PhD, Mimshak Fellow, Scientific Advisor, Public Health Services, Israeli Ministry of Health, Herzlyia, Israel

Kirk Barrett, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Manhattan College, South Orange, NJ, USA

William Battaglin, MSc, Research Hydrologist, Colorado Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO, USA

Peter Behnisch, PhD, Director, BioDetection Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Antonio Benetti, PhD, Associate Professor, Hydraulic Research Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre – RS, Brazil

Kai Bester, PhD, Professor, Department of Environmental Science – Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark

Terry Bidleman, PhD, Senior Professor, Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Julie Billings, MD, Piedmont, CA, USA

Shyam Biswal, PhD, Professor, Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Carles Borrego, PhD, Research Professor, Quality Area, Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain

Charles B. Bott, PhD, PE, BCEE, Director of Water Technology and Research, Hampton Roads Sanitation District and Adjunct Professor, Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA, and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA

Kirsten Bouman, Assistant, Lab Animal Biodiversity, Biology, University of Leiden and Staff Member, Toxicowatch Foundation, The Netherlands

Edward Bouwer, PhD, Professor, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Hindrik Bouwman, PhD, Professor, Zoology, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Gregory Boyce, PhD, Assistant Professor, Chemistry, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL, USA

Lindsay Bramwell, MSc, Research Associate and Contaminated Land Officer, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK

Thomas Bruton, MSE, PhD Candidate, Civil and Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz, PhD, Assistant Professor, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Michael Carbajales-Dale, PhD, Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson SC, USA

Sara Castiglioni, PhD, Researcher, Environmental Health Sciences, Mario Negri Institute, Milan, Italy

Ezra Cates, PhD, Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Anderson, SC, USA

Tzu-Chiao Chao, PhD, Research Professor, Head, Cellular Impacts Facility, Institute of Environmental Change and Society, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada

Steven Chillrud, PhD, Senior Doherty Research Scientist, Geochemistry Division, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA

Erik Coats, PhD, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA

Adrian Covaci, PhD, Professor, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium

Craig Criddle, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Alison Cupples, PhD, Associate Professor, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

Viet Dang, PhD, Assistant Scientist, Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Michel Dedeo, PhD, Chemist, Healthy Building Network, Oakland, CA, USA

Deborah de Moulpied, MEd, Faculty, Environment, Anticancer Lifestyle Program, Concord, NH, USA

Hale Demirtepe, MSc, Researcher, Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

Randhir Deo, PhD, Assistant Professor, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Grand Canyon University, Phoenix, AR, USA

Dionysios Dionysiou, PhD, UNESCO Co-Chair Professor of “Water Access and Sustainability” and Professor of Environmental Engineering, Department of Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering (DBCEE), University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Hansa Done, PhD, Research Analyst, Office of Knowledge Enterprise Development Research Analytics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Frank Dorman, PhD, Associate Professor, Biochemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA

Kyle Doudrick, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA

Jörg Drewes, PhD, Chair Professor, Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany

Metin Duran, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA

Tracey Easthope, MPH, Health Care Without Harm, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

James Englehardt, PhD, PE, Professor, Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA

Ulrika Eriksson, PhD, School of Science and Technology, Man-Technology-Environment research centre (MTM), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden

Lee Ferguson, PhD, Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Martin Forter, PhD, Manager, Ärztinnen und Ärzte für Umweltschutz (AefU), Doctors for the Environment Switzerland, Basel, Switzerland

Peter Fox, PhD, Professor, Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Jessica Furrer, PhD, Assistant Professor, Physics and Engineering, Benedict College, Columbia, SC, USA

Stephen Gardner, DVM, Medical Director, VCA Albany Animal Hospital, Albany, CA, USA

Kevin Gilmore, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA

Lynn Goldman, MD, MS, MPH, Dean and Professor, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

Jay Graham, PhD, Program Director, Global Health, Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA, USA

Jessica Green, PhD, Professor, Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA

Nancy Grimm, PhD, Professor, Life Sciences, Arizona State University School of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ, USA

Gudmundur Gudmundsson, Food Scientist, Reykjavik, Iceland

John Gulliver, PhD, Professor, Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Stuart Harrad, PhD, Professor of Environmental Chemistry, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Erica M. Hartmann, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA

Lee Hartwell, PhD, Professor, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Bernhard Hennig, PhD, Professor, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Janet Hering, PhD, Director, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

Juliane Hollender, PhD, Department Head, Environmental Chemistry, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

Thomas Holsen, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA

Keri Hornbuckle, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

Kerry Howe, PhD, Professor, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA

Alin Constantin Ionas, PhD, Researcher, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Zainab Ismail, PhD, Professor, Environmental Engineering, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq

Anne Hope Jahren, PhD, Professor, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Veerle Jaspers, PhD, Associate Professor, Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Megan Jehn, PhD, Associate Professor, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Allan Astrup Jensen, PhD, Research Director, CEO, Nordic Institute for Product Sustainability, Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology (NIPSECT), Copenhagen, Denmark

Jeff Jeremiason, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemistry, Environmental Studies, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN, USA

Carol Johnson, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA

Howard Junca, PhD, Scientific Director, Div. Ecogenomics and Holobionts, Microbiomas Foundation, Chia, Colombia

Tomasz Kalinowski, PhD, Environmental Scientist, AECOM, Rocky Hill, CT, USA

Norma Kanarek, PhD, MPH, Faculty, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, PhD, Reader in Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK

Kay Kelterer, Consultant, Environmental Consulting, Seevetal, Germany

Wiebke Kelterer, BSc, Hamburg, Germany

Jana Klánová, PhD, Director, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Wolfgang Korner, PhD, Head of Unit, Analysis of Organic Compounds, Lab Manager, Bavarian Environment Agency (LFU), Augsburg, Germany

Petr Kukucka, PhD, Research Assistant, Man-Technology-Environment research centre (MTM), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden

Perihan Binnur Kurt Karakus, PhD, Associate Professor, Environmental Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey

Carol Kwiatkowski, PhD, Executive Director, The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, Paonia, CO, USA

Henrik Kylin, PhD, Professor, Thematic Studies – Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

Silvia Lacorte, PhD, Professor, Environmental Chemistry, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain

Gisella Lamas Samanamud, PhD, Postdoc, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

Laurie LaPat-Polasko, PhD, Principal Consultant, Remediation, Ramboll Environ, Inc., Phoenix, AZ, USA

Jenny Lawler, PhD, Academic, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland

Robert S. Lawrence, MD, MACP, Professor Emeritus, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

TorOve Leiknes, PhD, Direction, Professor, WDRC Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC), KAUST King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

Pamela Lein, PhD, Professor, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA

Monica Lind, PhD, Associate Professor, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Lars Lind, PhD, Professor, Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Elena Lingas, DrPH, MPH, Associate Professor, Touro University California, Vallejo, CA, USA

Andreas Linge Tomren, PhD, Chief Engineer, National Institute of Food and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen, Norway

Jinxia Liu, PhD, Assistant Professor, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

Frank Loeffler, PhD, Governor’s Chair Professor and Director, Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Department of Microbiology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA

Bommanna Loganathan, PhD, Professor, Chemistry, Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA

Panna Lossy, MD, University of California San Francisco Clinical Faculty, Family Medicine, Santa Rosa Residency, Santa Rosa, CA, USA

Dave Love, PhD, MSPH, Associate Scientist, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Gregory Lowry, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Richard G. Luthy, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Douglas Mackay, PhD, Adjunct Professor, Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Kris Maillacheruvu, PhD, Professor, Civil Engineering and Construction, Bradley University, Peoria, IL, USA

Ian Makey, MD, Physician/Assistant Professor, Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

Colleen Makey, PhD, Research Fellow, Environmental Health, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA

Bhagyashree Manivannan, PhD, Affiliated Faculty Member, Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Sherri Mason, PhD, Professor of Chemistry and Department of Geology and Environmental Sciences Chair, The State University of New York, Fredonia, NY, USA

Andrew Maynard, PhD, Professor, School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Eugene McCall, PhD, JD, President, McCall Environmental, PA, Greenville, SC, USA

Perry McCarty, ScD, Professor Emeritus, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Jason P. McDevitt, PhD, Research Scientist, William and Mary Research Institute, Williamsburg, VA, USA

Joan McGregor, PhD, Professor, Philosophy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Patrick McNamara, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Yujie Men, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA

Annelle Mendez, PhD Candidate, Safety and Environmental Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Lama Mghames, MSc, Project Manager, NIP POPs Project/PCB Management Project, Ministry of Environment, Beirut, Lebanon

Jelena Milić, PhD, Scientific Associate, Centre of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia

Shelly Miller, PhD, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

Natalie Mladenov, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA

Bill Mott, MESc, Director, The Ocean Project, Providence, RI, USA

Tom Muir, MSc, Retired, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada

Lubica Palkovicova Murinova, MD, PhD, Senior Scientist, Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia

Steven Mylon, PhD, Associate Professor, Chemistry, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA

Keeve Nachman, PhD, MHS, Assistant Professor, Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

Takeshi Nakano, PhD, Guest Professor, Research Center for Environmental Preservation, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Tala Navab-Daneshmand, PhD, Assistant Professor, Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

Randolph Nesse, MN, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Paige Novak, PhD, Professor, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Zuleica Nycz, Director, Chemical Safety and Environmental Health, Toxisphera Environmental Health Association, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

Kees Olie, PhD, Professor, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Christoph Ort, PhD, Group Leader, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

Jonathan Patz, MD, MPH, Professor and Director, Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, USA

Daniel Paull, PhD, Assistant Professor, Chemistry, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL, USA

Graham F. Peaslee, PhD, Professor, Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA

Diana Petitti, MD, MPH, Clinical Professor, Biomedical Informatics, University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AR, USA

Jaime Plazas-Tuttle, MSc, PhD Candidate, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA

Anuschka Polder, PhD, Researcher, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway

Rachel Poretsky, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

Peerapong Pornwongthong, PhD, Lecturer and Researcher, Agro-Industrial, Food and Environmental Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangsue Bangkok Province, Thailand

George Poste, DVM, PhD, Director, Complex Adaptive Systems, Arizona State University, Scottsdale, AZ, USA

Carsten Prasse, PhD, Postdoc, Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, USA

Ana Prieto, PhD, Research Associate, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

Andrew Purgiel, Chemical Engineering Student, University of Maine, South Berwick, ME, USA

Brenda Read-Daily, PhD, Assistant Professor of Engineering, Engineering and Physics, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, PA, USA

Fiona Regan, PhD, Director, DCU Water Institute, Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland

Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, PhD Candidate, Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Susan Richardson, PhD, Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Bruce Rittmann, PhD, Regents’ Professor of Environmental Engineering, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Larry Robertson, MPH, PhD, Professor and Program Director, Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

Chelsea Rochman, PhD, Assistant Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Stephen Roth, PhD, Professor, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

Salim Sakaroum, Researcher, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, Oman

Amina Salamova, PhD, Assistant Scientist, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

Christopher Sales, PhD, Assistant Professor, Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Amy Sapkota, PhD, Associate Professor, Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland, School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA

Amir Sapkota, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA

Roger Scholten, MD, Pediatrician, General Practice, Swedish Medical Group, Seattle, WA, USA

Thomas Seager, PhD, Associate Professor, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Janine Selendy, BA/BSc, Co-Chair, Founder, Publisher, Biology, Horizon International, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

Deborah Sills, PhD, Assistant Professor, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA

Anna Soehl, MSc, Science & Policy Consultant, Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA

Søren Sørensen, PhD, Chemist, Division of Residues, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Ringsted, Denmark

Elena Sorokin, PhD, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Jitka Strakova, Arnika – Toxics and Waste Programme and IPEN – Dioxin, PCB and Waste Working Group, Prague, Czech Republic

Rebecca Sutton, PhD, Senior Scientist, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, CA, USA

Michael Switzenbaum, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, Whitefish Bay, WI, USA

Takumi Takasuga, PhD, Corporate Officer, General Manager, Environment Division, Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto, Japan

Daniel Teclechiel, PhD, Organic Synthesis, AccuStandard, Inc., New Haven, CT, USA

Andrew Tongue, PhD Candidate, Public Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

João Paulo Machado Torres, PhD, Professor, Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Fabio Torres, BSc, Student, Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Tomas Trnovec, PhD, Senior Scientist, Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia

Linda Tseng, PhD, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Environmental Studies Program, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA

Anthony Tweedale, MSc, Founder, R.I.S.K. Consultancy, Brussels, Belgium

Arjun Venkatesan, PhD, Associate Research Scientist, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Peter Vikesland, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Urs von Gunten, PhD, Head of Competence Centre for Drinking Water, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland

Polly Walker, MD, MPH, Retired, Associate Director, Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, Baltimore, MD, USA

Shane Walker, PhD, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA

Kristine Wammer, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN, USA

Michael Warhurst, PhD, MSc, Executive Director, CHEM Trust, London, UK

David Warhurst, BSc, PhD, Emeritus Professor, Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK

Linda Weavers, PhD, Professor, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Glenys Webster, PhD, Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) Postdoctoral Fellowship, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Victoria, BC, Canada

Tara Webster, PhD, Postdoctoral Associate, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Larry Weiss, MD, Chief Medical Officer, AOBiome, LLC, San Francisco, CA, USA

Sacoby Wilson, PhD, Assistant Professor, Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

Manivannan Yegambaram, PhD, Affiliated Faculty Member, Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, AR, USA

Thomas Young, PhD, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA

Wen Zhang, PhD, Assistant Professor, CEE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA


Adolfsson-Erici M, Pettersson M, Parkkonen J, Sturve J. 2002. Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden. Chemosphere 46:1485–1489, PMID: 12002480, 10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00255-7.

Ahn KC, Zhao B, Chen J, Cherednichenko G, Sanmarti E, Denison MS, et al. 2008. In vitro biologic activities of the antimicrobials triclocarban, its analogs, and triclosan in bioassay screens: Receptor-based bioassay screens. Environ Health Perspect 116:1203–1210, PMID: 18795164, 10.1289/ehp.11200.

Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. 2008. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious diseases risk in the community setting: A meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 98:1372–1381, PMID: 18556606, 10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610.

Aiello AE, Larson EL, Levy SB. 2007. Consumer antibacterial soaps: effective or just risky?. Clin Infect Dis 45: S137–S147, PMID: 17683018, 10.1086/519255.

Aiello AE, Marshall B, Levy SB, Della-Latta P, Larson E. 2004. Relationship between triclosan and susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from hands in the community. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:2973–2979, PMID: 15273108, 10.1128/AAC.48.8.2973-2979.2004.

Allmyr M et al. 2008. The influence of age and gender on triclosan concentrations in Australian human blood serum. Sci Total Environ 393:162–167, PMID: 18207219, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.12.006.

Allmyr M, Adolfsson-Erici M, McLachlan MS, Sandborgh-Englund G. 2006. Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products. Sci Total Environ 372:87–93, PMID: 17007908, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.007.

Alvarez-Rivera G, Llompart M, Garcia-Jares C, Lores M. 2016. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin. J Chromatogr A 1440:37–44, PMID: 26948762, 10.1016/j.chroma.2016.02.066.

Anderson SE, Franko J, Kashon ML, Anderson KL, Hubbs AF, Lukomska E, et al. 2013. Exposure to triclosan augments the allergic response to ovalbumin in a mouse model of asthma. Toxicol Sci 132:96–106, PMID: 23192912, 10.1093/toxsci/kfs328.

Anderson SE, Meade BJ, Long CM, Lukomska E, Marshall NB. 2016. Investigations of immunotoxicity and allergic potential induced by topical application of triclosan in mice. J Immunotoxicol 13:165–172, PMID: 25812624, 10.1016/bs.mcb.2015.01.016.

Anger CT, Sueper C, Blumentritt DJ, McNeill K, Engstrom DR, Arnold WA. 2013. Quantification of triclosan, chlorinated triclosan derivatives, and their dioxin photoproducts in lacustrine sediment cores. Environ Sci Technol 47:1833–1843, PMID: 23320506, 10.1021/es3045289.

Aranami K, Readman JW. 2007. Photolytic degradation of triclosan in freshwater and seawater. Chemosphere 66:1052–1056, PMID: 16930676, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.07.010.

Aryal N, Reinhold DM. 2011. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials from biosolids: Impacts on environmental fate and relevance to human exposure. Water Res 45:5545–5552, PMID: 21903237, 10.1016/j.watres.2011.08.027.

Axelstad M, Boberg J, Vinggaard AM, Christiansen S, Hass U. 2013. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring. Food Chem Toxicol 59:534–540, PMID: 23831729, 10.1016/j.fct.2013.06.050.

Balmer ME, Poiger T, Droz C, Romanin K, Bergqvist PA, Müller MD, et al. 2004. Occurrence of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan, in fish from various lakes in Switzerland. Environ Sci Technol 38:390–395, PMID: 14750712, 10.1021/es030068p.

Bedoux G, Roig B, Thomas O, Dupont V, Le Bot B. 2012. Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 19:1044–1065, PMID: 22057832, 10.1007/s11356-011-0632-z.

Beecher N, Crawford K, Goldstein N, Kester G, Lono-Batura M, Dziezyk E. 2007. A National Biosolids Regulation, Quality, End Use, & Disposal Survey – Final Report. July 20, 2007. Tamworth, NH: North East Biosolids and Residual Association (NEBRA). [accessed 17 June 2016].

Bertelsen RJ, Longnecker MP, Løvik M, Calafat AM, Carlsen KH, London SJ, et al. 2013. Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children. Allergy Eur J Allergy Clin Immunol 68:84–91, PMID: 23146048, 10.1111/all.12058.

Bester K. 2003. Triclosan in a sewage treatment process – Balances and monitoring data. Water Res 37:3891–3896, PMID: 12909107, 10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00335-X.

Bester K. 2005. Fate of triclosan and triclosan-methyl in sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:9–17, PMID: 15959704, 10.1007/s00244-004-0155-4.

Bhargava HN, Leonard PA. 1996. Triclosan: Applications and safety. Am J Infect Control 24:209–218, PMID: 8807001, 10.1016/S0196-6553(96)90017-6.

Borchgrevink CP, Cha J, Kim S. 2013. Hand washing practices in a college town environment. J Environ Health; 75:18–24, PMID: 23621052.

Braoudaki M, Hilton AC. 2004. Adaptive resistance to biocides in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157 and cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. J Clin Microbiol 42:73–78, PMID: 14715734, 10.1128/JCM.42.1.73.

Buth JM, Steen PO, Sueper C, Blumentritt D, Vikesland PJ, Arnold WA, et al. 2010. Dioxin photoproducts of triclosan and its chlorinated derivatives in sediment cores. Environ Sci Technol 44:4545–4551, PMID: 20476764, 10.1021/es1001105.

Buth JM, Grandbois M, Vikesland PJ, McNeill K, Arnold WA. 2009. Aquatic photochemistry of chlorinated triclosan derivatives: potential source of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:2555–2563, PMID: 19908930, 0730-7268/09.

Buth JM, Ross MR, McNeill K, Arnold WA. 2011. Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection. Chemosphere 84:1238–1243, PMID: 21652055, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.003.

Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Reidy JA, Needham LL. 2008. Urinary concentrations of triclosan in the U.S. population: 2003-2004. Environ Health Perspect 116:303–307, PMID: 18335095, 10.1289/ehp.10768.

CalEPA (State of California Environmental Protection Agency). 2017. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986: Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. January 27, 2017. [accessed 3 February 2017].

Cantwell MG, Wilson BA, Zhu J, Wallace GT, King JW, Olsen CR, et al. 2010. Temporal trends of triclosan contamination in dated sediment cores from four urbanized estuaries: Evidence of preservation and accumulation. Chemosphere 78:347–352, PMID: 20006371, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.11.021.

Carey DE, McNamara PJ. 2015. The impact of triclosan on the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Front Microbiol 5:780, PMID: 25642217, 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00780.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2003. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). 52(RR10). [accessed 17 June 2016].

Chalew TEA, Halden RU. 2009. Environmental exposure of aquatic and terrestrial biota to triclosan and triclocarban. J Am Water Works Assoc 45:4–13, PMID: 20046971, 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00284.x.

Chen J, Ahn KC, Gee NA, Ahmed MI, Duleba AJ, Zhao L, et al. 2008. Triclocarban enhances testosterone action: A new type of endocrine disruptor? Endocrinology 149:1173–1179, PMID: 18048496, 10.1210/en.2007-1057.

Clayton EMR, Todd M, Dowd JB, Aiello AE. 2011. The impact of bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the U.S. population, NHANES 2003-2006. Environ Health Perspect 119:390–396, PMID: 21062687, 10.1289/ehp.1002883.

Coogan MA, Edziyie RE, La Point TW, Venables BJ. 2007. Algal bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl-triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant receiving stream. Chemosphere 67:1911–1918, PMID: 17275881, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.12.027.

Coogan MA, La Point TW. 2008. Snail bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyltriclosan in a North Texas, USA, stream affected by wastewater treatment plant runoff. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1788–1793, PMID: 18380516, 10.1897/07-374.1.

Crawford BR, deCatanzaro D. 2012. Disruption of blastocyst implantation by triclosan in mice: Impacts of repeated and acute doses and combination with bisphenol-A. Reprod Toxicol 34:607–613, PMID: 23059059, 10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.09.008.

Dann AB, Hontela A. 2011. Triclosan: Environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action. J Appl Toxicol 31:285–311, PMID: 21462230, 10.1002/jat.1660.

Davis EF, Gunsch CK, Stapleton HM. 2015. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 34:968–976, PMID: 25546022, 10.1002/etc.2854.

Dayan AD. 2007. Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan®] in human breast milk. Food Chem Toxicol 45:125–129, PMID: 17011099, 10.1016/j.fct.2006.08.009.

Den Hond E, Tournaye H, De Sutter P, Ombelet W, Baeyens W, Covaci A, et al. 2015. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and fertility: A case-control study in male subfertility patients. Environ Int 84:154–160, PMID: 26292060, 10.1016/j.envint.2015.07.017.

Dhillon GS, Kaur S, Pulicharla R, Brar SK, Cledón M, Verma M, et al. 2015. Triclosan: Current status, occurrence, environmental risks and bioaccumulation potential. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:5657–5684, PMID: 26006133, 10.3390/ijerph120505657.

Ding SL, Wang XK, Jiang WQ, Meng X, Zhao RS, Wang C, et al. 2013. Photodegradation of the antimicrobial triclocarban in aqueous systems under ultraviolet radiation. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 20:3195–3201, PMID: 23054798, 10.1007/s11356-012-1239-8.

Doudrick KD, Jones DB, Kalinowski T, Hartmann EM, Halden RU. 2010. Assessment of the contribution of triclosan to dioxin emissions from sludge incineration in the U.S. using a mathematical model. Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Environment: Ecological and Human Health Considerations ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1048. Halden RU, ed. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 469–481, 10.1021/bk-2010-1048.ch023.

Drury B, Scott J, Rosi-Marshall EJ, Kelly JJ. 2013. Triclosan exposure increases triclosan resistance and influences taxonomic composition of benthic bacterial communities. Environ Sci Technol 47:8923–8930, PMID: 23865377, 10.1021/es401919k.

Duleba AJ, Scott J, Rosi-Marshall EJ, Kelly JJ. 2011. Effects of triclocarban on intact immature male rat: Augmentation of androgen action. Reprod Sci 18:119–127, PMID: 20889956, 10.1177/1933719110382581.

EC (European Commission). 2016. Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2016/110 of 27 January 2016 not Approving Triclosan as an Existing Active Substance for Use in Biocidal Products for Product-type 1. Official Journal of the European Union L 21/87. [accessed 23 January 2017].

ECHA (European Chemicals Agency). 2015. Biocidal Products Committee (BPC): Opinion on the Application for Approval of the Active Substance: Triclosan Product-type: 1. ECHA/BPC/066/2015. Helsinki, Finland. [accessed 17 June 2016].

Fair PA, Lee HB, Adams J, Darling C, Pacepavicius G, Alaee M, et al. 2009. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment. Environ Pollut 157:2248–2254, PMID: 19410343,10.1016/j.envpol.2009.04.002.

Fan X, Kubwabo C, Rasmussen P, Jones-Otazo H. 2010. Simultaneous quantitation of parabens, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Environ Monit 12:1891–1897, PMID: 20820626, 10.1039/C0EM00189A.

Fang JL, Vanlandingham MM, Juliar BE, Olson GR, Patton RE, Beland FA. 2015. Dose–response assessment of the dermal toxicity of triclosan in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Res 4:867–877, 10.1039/C4TX00152D.

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2016. 21 CFR Part 310 Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics. Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. Final Rule. Fed Reg 81:61106–61130.

Fiss EM, Rule KL, Vikesland PJ. 2007. Formation of chloroform and other chlorinated byproducts by chlorination of triclosan-containing antibacterial products. Environ Sci Technol 41:2387–2394, PMID: 17438791, 10.1021/es062227l.

Franz S, Altenburger R, Heilmeier H, Schmitt-Jansen M. 2008. What contributes to the sensitivity of microalgae to triclosan?. Aquat Toxicol 90:102–108, PMID: 18824267, 10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.08.003.

Frederiksen H, Jensen TK, Jørgensen N, Kyhl HB, Husby S, Skakkebæk NE, et al. 2014. Human urinary excretion of non-persistent environmental chemicals: An overview of Danish data collected between 2006 and 2012. Reprod Res 147:555–565, PMID: 24395915, 10.1530/REP-13-0522.

Gaulke CA, Barton CL, Proffitt S, Tanguay RL, Sharpton TJ. 2016. Triclosan exposure is associated with rapid restructuring of the microbiome in adult zebrafish. PLoS One 11(5): e0154632, PMID: 27191725, 10.1371/journal.pone.0154632.

Gee RH, Charles A, Taylor N, Darbre PD. 2008. Oestrogenic and androgenic activity of triclosan in breast cancer cells. J Appl Toxicol 28:78–91, PMID: 17992702, 10.1002/jat.1316.

Geens T, Roosens L, Neels H, Covaci A. 2009. Assessment of human exposure to bisphenol-A, triclosan and tetrabromobisphenol-A through indoor dust intake in Belgium. Chemosphere 76:755–760, PMID: 19535125, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.05.024.

Geer LA, Pycke BFG, Waxenbaum J, Sherer DM, Abulafia O, Halden RU. 2017. Association of birth outcomes with fetal exposure to parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in an immigrant population in Brooklyn, New York. J Hazard Mater 5:177–183, PMID: 27156397, 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.03.028.

Geiß C, Ruppert K, Heidelbach T, Oehlmann J. 2016. The antimicrobial agents triclocarban and triclosan as potent modulators of reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae). J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 51:1173–1179, PMID: 27459681, 10.1080/10934529.2016.1206388.

Ghassabian A, El Marroun H, Peeters RP, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, et al. 2014. Downstream effects of maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy: Nonverbal IQ and brain morphology in school-age children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:2383–2390, PMID: 24684462, 10.1210/jc.2013-4281.

Ginsberg GL, Balk SJ. 2016. Consumer products as sources of chemical exposures to children: Case study of triclosan. Curr Opin Pediatr 28:235–242, PMID: 26867165, 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000329.

Giudice BD, and Young TM. 2010. The antimicrobial triclocarban stimulates embryo production in the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:966–970, PMID: 20821527, 10.1002/etc.105.

Giuliano CA, Rybak MJ. 2015. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: A focused review. Pharmacotherapy 35:328–336, PMID: 25809180, 10.1002/phar.1553.

Halden RU, Paull DH. 2005. Co-occurrence of triclocarban and triclosan in U.S. water resources. Environ Sci Technol 39:1420–1426, PMID: 15819193, 10.1021/es049071e.

Halden RU. 2014. On the need and speed of regulating triclosan and triclocarban in the United States. Environ Sci Technol 48:3603–3611, PMID: 24588513, 10.1021/es500495p.

Hartmann EM, Hickey R, Hsu T, Betancourt Roman CM, Chen J, et al. 2016. Antimicrobial chemicals are associated with elevated antibiotic resistance genes in the indoor dust microbiome. Environ Sci Technol 50(18):9807–9815, PMID: 27599587, 10.1021/acs.est.6b00262.

Heidler J, Halden RU. 2009. Fate of organohalogens in US wastewater treatment plants and estimated chemical releases to soils nationwide from biosolids recycling. J Environ Monit 11:2207–2215, PMID: 20024018, 10.1039/b914324f.

Heidler J, Sapkota A, Halden RU. 2006. Partitioning, persistence, and accumulation in digested sludge of the topical antiseptic triclocarban during wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 40(11):3634–3639, PMID: 16786704,10.1021/es052245n.

Henrichs J, Ghassabian A, Peeters RP, Tiemeier H. 2013. Maternal hypothyroxinemia and effects on cognitive functioning in childhood: How and why?. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 79:152–162, PMID: 23600900, 10.1111/cen.12227.

Henry ND, Fair PA. 2013. Comparison of in vitro cytotoxicity, estrogenicity, and anti-estrogenicity of triclosan, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid. J Appl Toxicol 33:265–272, PMID: 21935973, 10.1002/jat.1736.

Higgins CP, Paesani ZJ, Abbott Chalew TE, Halden RU, Hundal LS. 2011. Persistence of triclocarban and triclosan in soils after land application of biosolids and bioaccumulation in Eisenia foetida. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:556–563, PMID: 21128266, 10.1002/etc.416.

Higgins CP, Paesani ZJ, Chalew TEA, Halden RU. 2009. Bioaccumulation of triclocarban in Lumbriculus Variegatus. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:2580–2586, PMID: 19655999, 10.1897/09-013.1.

Holling CS, Bailey JL, Vanden Heuvel B, Kinney CA. 2012. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals and personal care products by cabbage (Brassica campestris) from fortified and biosolids-amended soils. J Environ Monit 14:3029–3036, PMID: 23051741, 10.1039/c2em30456b.

Hu J, Raikhel V, Gopalakrishnan K, Fernandez-Hernandez H, Lambertini L, Manservisi F, et al. 2016. Effect of postnatal low-dose exposure to environmental chemicals on the gut microbiome in a rodent model. Microbiome 4:26, PMID: 27301250, 10.1186/s40168-016-0173-2.

Huang H, Du G, Zhang W, Hu J, Wu D, Song L, et al. 2014. The in vitro estrogenic activities of triclosan and triclocarban. J Appl Toxicol 34:1060–1067, PMID: 24740835, 10.1002/jat.3012.

IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2012. Chemical Agents and Related Occupations – Volume 100F – A Review of Human Carcinogens. Lyon, France. [accessed 18 August 2016].

Ishibashi H, Matsumura N, Hirano M, Matsuoka M, Shiratsuchi H, Ishibashi Y, et al. 2004. Effects of triclosan on the early life stages and reproduction of medaka Oryzias latipes and induction of hepatic vitellogenin. Aquat Toxicol 67:167–179, PMID: 15003701, 10.1016/j.aquatox.2003.12.005.

James MO, Li W, Summerlot DP, Rowland-Faux L, Wood CE. 2010. Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estradiol and estrone sulfonation in sheep placenta. Environ Int 36:942–949, PMID: 19299018, 10.1016/j.envint.2009.02.004.

James MO, Marth CJ, Rowland-Faux L. 2012. Slow O-demethylation of methyl triclosan to triclosan, which is rapidly glucuronidated and sulfonated in channel catfish liver and intestine. Aquat Toxicol 124-125:72–82, PMID: 22926334, 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.07.009.

Johnson PI, Koustas E, Vesterinen HM, Sutton P, Atchley DS, Kim AN, et al. 2016. Application of the navigation guide systematic review methodology to the evidence for developmental and reproductive toxicity of triclosan. Environ Int 92-93:716–728, PMID: 27156197, 10.1016/j.envint.2016.03.009.

Kanetoshi A, Ogawa H, Katsura E, Kaneshima H, Miura T. 1988. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins upon combustion of commercial textile products containing 2,4,4ʹ-trichloro-2ʹ-hydroxydiphenyl ether (Irgasan® DP3000). J Chromatogr A 442:289–299, PMID: 3417820, 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94476-5.

Kanetoshi A, Ogawa H, Katsura E, Kaneshima H. 1987. Chlorination of Irgasan DP300 and formation from its chlorinated derivatives. J Chromatogr 389:139–153, PMID: 3571350, 0021-9673:87.

Kerrigan JF, Engstrom DR, Yee D, Sueper C, Erickson PR, Grandbois M, et al. 2015. Quantification of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs), triclosan, and related compounds in freshwater and coastal systems. PLoS One 10:e0138805. PMID: 26466159, 10.1371/journal.pone.0138805.

Kinney C, Furlong E, Kolpin D, Burkhardt M, Zaugg S. 2008. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure. Environ Sci Technol 42:1863–1870, PMID: 18409605, 10.1021/es702304c.

Kolpin DW, Furlong E, Meyer M, Thurman EM, Zaugg S. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999 – 2000: A national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36:1202–1211, PMID: 11944670, 10.1021/es011055j.

Kumar V, Chakraborty A, Kural MR, Roy P. 2009. Alteration of testicular steroidogenesis and histopathology of reproductive system in male rats treated with triclosan. Reprod Toxicol 27:177–185, PMID: 19118620, 10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.12.002.

Langdon KA, Warne MSJ, Smernik RJ, Shareef A, Kookana RS. 2012. Field dissipation of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, triclosan and bisphenol A following land application of biosolids. Chemosphere 86:1050–1058, PMID: 22196087, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.057.

Lange A, Sebire M, Rostkowski P, Mizutani T, Miyagawa S, Iguchi T, et al. 2015. Environmental chemicals active as human antiandrogens do not activate a stickleback androgen receptor but enhance a feminising effect of oestrogen in roach. Aquat Toxicol 168:48–59, PMID: 26440146, 10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.09.014.

Lassen TH, Frederiksen H, Kyhl HB, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, et al. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261–1268, PMID: 26908126, 10.1289/ehp.1409637.

Latch DE, Packer JL, Arnold WA, McNeill K. 2003. Photochemical conversion of triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous solution. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 158:63–66, PMID: 16520937, 10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00103-5.

Leiker TJ, Abney SR, Goodbred SL, Rosen MR. 2009. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Sci Total Environ 407:2102–2114, PMID: 19054547, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.11.009.

Li X, Ying GG, Su HC, Yang XB, Wang L. 2010. Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles. Environ Int 36:557–562, PMID: 20452023, 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.009.

Loraine GA, Pettigrove ME. 2006. Seasonal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water and reclaimed wastewater in Southern California. Environ Sci Technol 40:687–695, PMID: 16509304, 10.1021/es051380x.

Louis GW, Hallinger DR, Stoker TE. 2013. The effect of triclosan on the uterotrophic response to extended doses of ethinyl estradiol in the weanling rat. Reprod Toxicol 36:71–77, PMID: 23261820, 10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.12.001.

Macherius A, Eggen T, Lorenz W, Moeder M, Ondruschka J, Reemtsma T. 2012. Metabolization of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment. Environ Sci Technol 46:10797–10804, PMID: 22989227, 10.1021/es3028378.

Macherius A, Lapen DR, Reemtsma T, Römbke J, Topp E, Coors A. 2014. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application. Sci Total Environ 472:235–238, PMID: 24291564, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.113.

Marshall NB, Lukomska E, Long CM, Kashon ML, Sharpnack DD, Nayak AP, et al. 2015. Triclosan induces thymic stromal lymphopoietin in skin promoting Th2 allergic responses. Toxicol Sci 147:127–139, PMID: 26048654, 10.1093/toxsci/kfv113.

Mathews S, Henderson S, Reinhold D. 2014. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21:6025–6033, PMID: 24464075, 10.1007/s11356-013-2474-3.

McAvoy DC, Schatowitz B, Jacob M, Hauk A, Eckhoff WS. 2002. Measurement of triclosan in wastewater treatment systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1323–1329, PMID: 12109730, 10.1002/etc.5620210701.

Meador JP, Yeh A, Young G, Gallagher EP. 2016. Contaminants of emerging concern in a large temperate estuary. Environ Pollut 213:254–267, PMID: 26907702, 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.088.

Meeker JD, Cantonwine DE, Rivera-González LO, Ferguson KK, Mukherjee B, Calafat AM, et al. 2013. Distribution, variability, and predictors of urinary concentrations of phenols and parabens among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Environ Sci Technol 47:3439–3447, PMID: 23469879, 10.1021/es400510g.

Menoutis J, Parisi AI. 2002. Testing for dioxin and furan contamination in triclosan. Cosmet Toilet 117:75–78.

Miller MD, Crofton KM, Rice DC, Zoeller RT. 2009. Thyroid-disrupting chemicals: interpreting upstream biomarkers of adverse outcomes. Environ Health Perspect 117:1033–1041, PMID: 19654909, 10.1289/ehp.0800247.

Miller TR, Colquhoun DR, Halden RU. 2010. Identification of wastewater bacteria involved in the degradation of triclocarban and its non-chlorinated congener. J Hazard Mater 183:766–772, PMID: 20727675, 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.07.092.

Miller TR, Heidler J, Chillrud SN, DeLaquil A, Ritchie JC, Mihalic JN, et al. 2008. Fate of triclosan and evidence for reductive dechlorination of triclocarban in estuarine sediments. Environ Sci Technol 42:4570–4576, PMID: 18605588, 10.1021/es702882g.

Millow CJ, Mackintosh SA, Lewison RL, Dodder NG, Hoh E. 2015. Identifying bioaccumulative halogenated organic compounds using a nontargeted analytical approach: Seabirds as sentinels. PLoS One 10:e0127205, PMID: 26020245, 10.1371/journal.pone.0127205.

Mortensen ME, Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Wright DJ, Pirkle JL, et al. 2014. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children’s Study. Environ Res 129:32–38, PMID: 24529000, 10.1016/j.envres.2013.12.004.

Moss T, Howes D, Williams FM. 2000. Percutaneous penetration and dermal metabolism of triclosan (2,4,4’- trichloro-2′-hydroxydiphenyl ether). Food Chem Toxicol 38:361–370, PMID: 10722890, 10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00164-7.

Orvos D, Versteeg D, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V. 2002. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1338–1349, PMID: 12109732, 10.1002/etc.5620210703.

Paul KB, Hedge JM, Bansal R, Zoeller RT, Peter R, DeVito MJ, et al. 2013. Developmental triclosan exposure decreases maternal, fetal, and early neonatal thyroxine: Dynamic and kinetic evaluation of a putative mode-of-action. Toxicology 300:31–45, PMID: 22659317, 10.1016/j.tox.2012.05.023.

Paul KB, Hedge JM, Devito MJ, Crofton KM. 2010. Short-term exposure to triclosan decreases thyroxine in vivo via upregulation of hepatic catabolism in young Long-Evans rats. Toxicol Sci 113:367–379, PMID: 19910387, 10.1093/toxsci/kfp271.

Philippat C, Botton J, Calafat AM, Ye X, Charles MA, Slama R, et al. 2014. Prenatal exposure to phenols and growth in boys. Epidemiology 25:625–635, PMID: 25061923, 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000132.

Philippat C, Wolff MS, Calafat AM, Ye X, Bausell R, Meadows M, et al. 2013. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols: Concentrations in amniotic fluid and variability in urinary concentrations during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 121:1225–1231, PMID: 23942273, 10.1289/ehp.1206335.

Pollock T, Greville LJ, Tang B, deCatanzaro D. 2016. Triclosan elevates estradiol levels in serum and tissues of cycling and peri-implantation female mice. Reprod Toxicol 65:394–401, PMID: 27638325, 10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.09.004.

Pollock T, Tang B, deCatanzaro D. 2014. Triclosan exacerbates the presence of 14C-bisphenol A in tissues of female and male mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 278:116–123, PMID: 24784443, 10.1016/j.taap.2014.04.017.

Prosser RS, Lissemore L, Topp E, Sibley PK. 2014. Bioaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban in plants grown in soils amended with municipal dewatered biosolids. Environ Tocixol Chem 33(5):975–984, PMID: 24375516, 10.1002/etc.2505.

Pycke BFG, Crabbé A, Verstraete W, Leys N. 2010. Characterization of triclosan-resistant mutants reveals multiple antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:3116–3123, PMID: 20305019, 10.1128/AEM.02757-09.

Pycke BFG, Geer LA, Dalloul M, Abulafia O, Jenck AM, Halden RU. 2014. Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York. Environ Sci Technol 48:8831–8838, PMID: 24971846, 10.1021/es501100w.

Queckenberg C, Meins J, Wachall B, Doroshyenko O, Tomalik-Scharte D, Bastian B, et al. 2010. Absorption, pharmacokinetics, and safety of triclosan after dermal administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:570–572, PMID: 19822703, 10.1128/AAC.00615-09.

Reiss R, Mackay N, Habig C, Griffin J. 2002. An ecological risk assessment for triclosan in lotic systems following discharge from wastewater treatment plants in the United States. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:2483–2492, PMID: 12389930, 10.1002/etc.5620211130.

Ricart M, Guasch H, Alberch M, Barceló D, Bonnineau C, Geiszinger A, et al. 2010. Triclosan persistence through wastewater treatment plants and its potential: Toxic effects on river biofilms. Aquat Toxicol 100:346–353, PMID: 20855117, 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.08.010.

Rule KL, Ebbett VR, Vikesland PJ. 2005. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Environ Sci Technol 39:3176–3185, PMID: 15926568, 10.1021/es048943.

Sacks VP, Lohmann R. 2011. Development and use of polyethylene passive samplers to detect triclosans and alkylphenols in an urban estuary. Environ Sci Technol 45:2270–2277, PMID: 21341696, 10.1021/es1040865.

Sandborgh-Englund G, Adolfsson-Erici M, Odham G, Ekstrand J. 2006. Pharmacokinetics of triclosan following oral ingestion in humans. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 69:1861–1873, PMID: 16952905, 10.1080/15287390600631706.

Savage JH, Johns CB, Hauser R, Litonjua AA. 2014. Urinary triclosan levels and recent asthma exacerbations. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 112:179–183, PMID: 24468262, 10.1016/j.anai.2013.11.017.

Savage JH, Matsui EC, Wood RA, Keet CA. 2012. Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 130:453–460, PMID: 22704536, 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.05.006.

SCCS (European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety). 2010. Opinion on Triclosan – Antimicrobial Resistance. Brussels, Begium. SCCP/1251/09. 22 June 2010. 10.2772/11162. [accessed 21 June 2016].

Schebb NH, Ahn KC, Dong H, Gee SJ, Hammock BD. 2012. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels. Chemosphere 87:825–827, PMID: 22273184, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.12.077.

Schebb NH, Flores I, Kurobe T, Franze B, Ranganathan A, Hammock BD, et al. 2011a. Bioconcentration, metabolism and excretion of triclocarban in larval Qurt medaka (Oryzias latipes). Aquat Toxicol 105:448–454, PMID: 21872556, 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.07.020.

Schebb NH, Inceoglu B, Ahn KC, Morisseau C, Gee SJ, Hammock BD. 2011b. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects. Environ Sci Technol 45:3109–3115, PMID: 21381656, 10.1021/es103650m.

Shekhar S, Sood S, Showkat S, Lite C, Chandrasekhar A, Vairamani M, et al. 2017. Detection of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from maternal blood plasma and amniotic fluid in Indian population. Gen Comp Endocrinol 241:100–107, PMID: 27235644, 10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.05.025.

Singer H, Müller S, Tixier C, Pillonel L. 2002. Triclosan: Occurrence and fate of a widely used biocide in the aquatic environment: field measurements in wastewater treatment plants, surface waters and lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 36:4998–5004, PMID: 12523412, 10.1021/es025750i CCC.

Sinkkonen S, Paasivirta J. 2000. Degradation half-life times of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs for environmental fate modeling. Chemosphere 40:943–949, PMID: 10739030, 10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00337-9.

Smith S. 2013. U.S. Disinfectant & Antimicrobial Chemicals Market. PRWeb. [accessed 8 August 2016].

Spanier AJ, Fausnight T, Camacho TF, Braun JM. 2014. The associations of triclosan and paraben exposure with allergen sensitization and wheeze in children. Allergy Asthma Proc 35:475–481, PMID: 25584915, 10.2500/aap.2014.35.3803.

State of Minnesota. 2016. Minnesota Statute 145.945 Certain Sales of Cleaning Products Prohibited. [accessed 16 February 2017].

Stoker TE, Gibson EK, Zorrilla LM. 2010. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the female Wistar rat. Toxicol Sci 117:45–53, PMID: 20562219, 10.1093/toxsci/kfq180.

Syed AK, Ghosh S, Love NG, Boles BR. 2014. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. MBio 5:e01015–13, PMID: 24713325, 10.1128/mBio.01015-13.

Tamura I, Kagota K, Yasuda Y, Yoneda S, Morita J, Nakada N, et al. 2013. Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: Triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol. J Appl Toxicol 33:1222–1229, PMID: 22806922, 10.1002/jat.2771.

Tobar S, Tordesillas L, Berin MC. 2016. Triclosan promotes epicutaneous sensitization to peanut in mice. Clin Transl Allergy 6, PMID: 27051518, 10.1186/s13601-016-0102-2.

Toms LM, Allmyr M, Mueller JF, Adolfsson-Erici M, McLachlan M, Murby J, et al. 2011. Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia. Chemosphere 85:1682–1686, PMID: 22000243, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.08.009.

U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Chemical Assessment Summary on Chloroform, CASRN 67-66-3. National Center for Environmental Assessment. [accessed 16 February 2017].

U.S. EPA. 2009. Targeted national sewage sludge survey sampling and analysis technical report. EPA-822-R-08-016. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. [accessed 20 June 2016].

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2013. Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional POPs under Article 5 of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. [accessed 11 August 2016].

Valters K, Li H, Alaee M, D’Sa I, Marsh G, Bergman A, et al. 2005. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated and chlorinated analogues in the plasma of fish from the Detroit River. Environ Sci Technol 39:5612–5619, PMID: 16124294, 10.1021/es0506410.

Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, et al. 2006. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 93:223–241, PMID: 16829543, 10.1093/toxsci/kfl055.

Veldhoen N, Skirrow RC, Osachoff H, Wigmore H, Clapson DJ, Gunderson MP, et al. 2006. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development. Aquat Toxicol 80:217–227, PMID: 17011055, 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.03.009.

Velez MP, Arbuckle TE, Fraser WD. 2015. Female exposure to phenols and phthalates and time to pregnancy: The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study. Fertil Steril 103:1011–1020.e2, PMID: 25681860, 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.01.005.

Venkatesan AK, Pycke BFG, Barber LB, Lee KE, Halden RU. 2012. Occurrence of triclosan, triclocarban, and its lesser chlorinated congeners in Minnesota freshwater sediments collected near wastewater treatment plants. J Hazard Mater 229-230:29–35, PMID: 22742731, 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.049.

von der Ohe PC, Schmitt-Jansen M, Slobodnik J, Brack W. 2012. Triclosan-the forgotten priority substance?. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 19:585–591, PMID: 21833630, 10.1007/s11356-011-0580-7.

Walters E, McClellan K, Halden RU. 2010. Occurrence and loss over three years of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products from biosolids-soil mixtures in outdoor mesocosms. Water Res 44:6011–6020, PMID: 20728197, 10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.051.

Wang CF, Tian Y. 2015. Reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects of triclosan: Population exposure, present evidence and potential mechanisms. Environ Pollut 206:195–201, PMID: 26184583, 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.07.001.

Wang X, Chen X, Feng X, Chang F, Chen M, Xia Y, et al. 2015. Triclosan causes spontaneous abortion accompanied by decline of estrogen sulfotransferase activity in humans and mice. Sci Rep 5:18252, PMID: 26666354, 10.1038/srep18252.

Wise A, Parham F, Axelrad DA, Guyton KZ, Portier C, Zeise L, et al. 2012. Upstream adverse effects in risk assessment: A model of polychlorinated biphenyls, thyroid hormone disruption and neurological outcomes in humans. Environ Res 117:90–99, PMID: 22770859, 10.1016/j.envres.2012.05.013.

Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, et al. 2007. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environ Health Perspect 115:116–121, PMID: 17366830, 10.1289/ehp.9488.

Woodruff TJ, Zeise L, Axelrad DA, Guyton KZ, Janssen S, Miller M, et al. 2008. Meeting report: Moving upstream—Evaluating adverse upstream end points for improved risk assessment and decision-making. Environ Health Perspect 116:1568, PMID: 19057713, 10.1289/ehp.11516.

Wu C, Spongberg AL, Witter JD, Fang M, Czajkowski KP. 2010. Uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by soybean plants from soils applied with biosolids and irrigated with contaminated water. Environ Sci Technol 44:6157–6161, PMID: 20704212, 10.1021/es1011115.

Wu X, Ernst F, Conkle JL, Gan J. 2013. Comparative uptake and translocation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by common vegetables. Environ Int 60:15–22, PMID: 23973619, 10.1016/j.envint.2013.07.015.

Xie Z, Ebinghaus R, Flöser G, Caba A, Ruck W. 2008. Occurrence and distribution of triclosan in the German Bight (North Sea). Environ Pollut 156:1190–1195, PMID: 18490092, 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.04.008.

Xu X, Lu Y, Zhang D, Wang Y, Zhou X, Xu H, et al. 2015. Toxic assessment of triclosan and triclocarban on Artemia salina. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 95:728–733, PMID: 26310128, 10.1007/s00128-015-1641-2.

Yazdankhah SP, Scheie AA, Høiby EA, Lunestad BT, Heir E, Fotland TØ;, et al. 2006. Triclosan and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria: An overview. Microb Drug Resist 12:83–90, PMID: 16922622, 10.1089/mdr.2006.12.83.

Ye X, Wong LY, Dwivedi P, Zhou X, Jia T, Calafat AM. 2016. Urinary concentrations of the antibacterial agent triclocarban in United States residents: 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environ Sci Technol 50:13548–13554, PMID: 27993070, 10.1021/acs.est.6b04668.

Ye X, Zhou X, Furr J, Ahn KC, Hammock BD, Gray EL, et al. 2011. Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. Toxicol 286:69–74, PMID: 21635932, 10.1016/j.tox.2011.05.008.

Yin J, Wei L, Shi Y, Zhang J, Wu Q, Shao B. 2016. Chinese population exposure to triclosan and triclocarban as measured via human urine and nails. Environ Geochem Health 38:1125–1135, PMID: 26497189, 10.1007/s10653-015-9777-x.

Zheng GJ, Leung AOW, Jiao LP, Wong MH. 2008. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans pollution in China: Sources, environmental levels and potential human health impacts. Environ Int 34:1050–1061, PMID: 18440070, 10.1016/j.envint.2008.02.011.

Zhou X, Ye X, Calafat AM. 2012. Automated on-line column-switching HPLC?MS/MS method for the quantification of triclocarban and its oxidative metabolites in human urine and serum. J Chromatogr B 881-882:27-33, PMID: 22192874, 10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.11.024.

Zhu W, Zhang H, Tong C, Xie C, Fan G, Zhao S, et al. 2016. Environmental exposure to triclosan and semen quality. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:224, PMID: 26901211, 10.3390/ijerph13020224.

Zorrilla LM, Gibson EK, Jeffay SC, Crofton KM, Setzer WR, Cooper RL, et al. 2009. The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats. Toxicol Sci 107:56–64, PMID: 18940961, 10.1093/toxsci/kfn225.

WP-Backgrounds Lite by InoPlugs Web Design and Juwelier Schönmann 1010 Wien