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Environmental Health Perspectives

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February 2014 | Volume 122 | Issue 2


February 2014 coverFocus

Once Upon a Mine: The Legacy of Uranium on the Navajo Nation

Carrie Arnold | A44

The Navajo Nation is home to hundreds of abandoned uranium mines, ranging from small holes dug by a single prospector into the side of a mesa to large commercial mining operations. Within decades of the arrival of prospectors in the 1940s, Navajo miners were being diagnosed with lung cancer, a relatively rare disease in this largely nonsmoking population. Today the Navajo population remains at high risk for kidney disease as a result of uranium exposure, as well as potentially associated hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune diseases.

Image: © Loomis Dean//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images

Aerial view of a fracking waste pond

Radionuclides in Fracking Wastewater: Managing a Toxic Blend

Valerie J. Brown | A50

Extracting gas from the Marcellus Shale usually entails a practice known as hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). Fracking brings up more than gas from the depths; the wastewater that flows to the surface contains radioactive materials that must be managed and disposed of. Fracking in the Marcellus has advanced so quickly that public understanding and research on its radioactive consequences have lagged behind, and there are many questions about the extent and magnitude of the potential risk to human health.

Image: © J. Henry Fair

Science Selections

A Smoking Gun? Epigenetic Markers of Tobacco Use History

Julia R. Barrett | A56

Also see Zhang et al., p. 131

Fish Consumption Caveat: Advisories May Not Help with Long-Lived Contaminants

Kellyn S. Betts | A57

Also see Binnington et al., p. 178

Fighting Noise Pollution: A Public Health Strategy

David C. Holzman | A58

Also see Hammer et al., p. 115

PFCs and Early Menopause: Association Raises Questions about Causality

Lindsey Konkel | A59

Also see Taylor et al., p. 145


Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

Monica S. Hammer, Tracy K. Swinburn, and Richard L. Neitzel | 115

Also see Science Selections, p. A58


Enablers and Barriers to Large-Scale Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves: A Systematic Review

Eva A. Rehfuess, Elisa Puzzolo, Debbi Stanistreet, Daniel Pope, and Nigel G. Bruce | 120


F2RL3 Methylation as a Biomarker of Current and Lifetime Smoking Exposures

Yan Zhang, Rongxi Yang, Barbara Burwinkel, Lutz P. Breitling, and Hermann Brenner | 131

Also see Science Selections, p. A56

Associations of PM2.5 Constituents and Sources with Hospital Admissions: Analysis of Four Counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts (USA) for Persons ≥ 65 Years of Age

Michelle L. Bell, Keita Ebisu, Brian P. Leaderer, Janneane F. Gent, Hyung Joo Lee, Petros Koutrakis, Yun Wang, Francesca Dominici, and Roger D. Peng | 138

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)

Kyla W. Taylor, Kate Hoffman, Kristina A. Thayer, and Julie L. Daniels | 145

Also see Science Selections, p. A59

Heat Waves and Health Outcomes in Alabama (USA): The Importance of Heat Wave Definition

Shia T. Kent, Leslie A. McClure, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Tiffany T. Smith, and Julia M. Gohlke | 151

DNA Methylation in Oocytes and Liver of Female Mice and Their Offspring: Effects of High-Fat-Diet–Induced Obesity

Zhao-Jia Ge, Shi-Ming Luo, Fei Lin, Qiu-Xia Liang, Lin Huang, Yan-Chang Wei, Yi Hou, Zhi-Ming Han, Heide Schatten, and Qing-Yuan Sun | 159

Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Variants, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

Lawrence S. Engel, Jaya Satagopan, Camelia S. Sima, Irene Orlow, Urvi Mujumdar, Joseph Coble, Pampa Roy, Sarah Yoo, Dale P. Sandler, and Michael C. Alavanja | 165

Exposure-Response Estimates for Diesel Engine Exhaust and Lung Cancer Mortality Based on Data from Three Occupational Cohorts

Roel Vermeulen, Debra T. Silverman, Eric Garshick, Jelle Vlaanderen, Lützen Portengen, and Kyle Steenland | 172

Children’s Health

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fish Consumption Advisories: Modeling Prenatal, Postnatal, and Childhood Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants

Matthew J. Binnington, Cristina L. Quinn, Michael S. McLachlan, and Frank Wania | 178

Also see Science Selections, p. A57

Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and Implications for Infant Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids

Debapriya Mondal, Rosana Hernandez Weldon, Ben G. Armstrong, Lorna J. Gibson, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Hyeong-Moo Shin, and Tony Fletcher | 187

Micronuclei in Cord Blood Lymphocytes and Associations with Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens and Hormonally Active Factors, Gene Polymorphisms, and Gene Expression: The NewGeneris Cohort

Domenico Franco Merlo, Silvia Agramunt, Lívia Anna, Harrie Besselink, Maria Botsivali, Nigel J. Brady, Marcello Ceppi, Leda Chatzi, Bowang Chen, Ilse Decordier, Peter B. Farmer, Sarah Fleming, Vincenzo Fontana, Asta Försti, Eleni Fthenou, Fabio Gallo, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Hans Gmuender, Roger W. Godschalk, Berit Granum, Laura J. Hardie, Kari Hemminki, Kevin Hochstenbach, Lisbeth E. Knudsen, Manolis Kogevinas, Katalin Kovács, Soterios A. Kyrtopoulos, Martinus Løvik, Jeanette K. Nielsen, Unni Cecilie Nygaard, Marie Pedersen, Per Rydberg, Bernadette Schoket, Dan Segerbäck, Rajinder Singh, Jordi Sunyer, Margareta Törnqvist, Henk van Loveren, Frederik J. van Schooten, Kim Vande Loock, Hans von Stedingk, John Wright, Jos C. Kleinjans, Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Joost H.M. van Delft, and the NewGeneris Consortium | 193

Within- and Between-Child Variation in Repeated Urinary Pesticide Metabolite Measurements over a 1-Year Period

Kathleen R. Attfield, Michael D. Hughes, John D. Spengler, and Chensheng Lu | 201

Anogenital Distance and Penile Length in Infants with Hypospadias or Cryptorchidism: Comparison with Normative Data

Ajay Thankamony, Ngee Lek, Dan Carroll, Martyn Williams, David B. Dunger, Carlo L. Acerini, Ken K. Ong, and Ieuan A. Hughes | 207



Inconclusive Findings: Now You See Them, Now You Don’t!

Christopher J. Portier, Lynn R. Goldman, and Bernard D. Goldstein | A36

Editor’s Note: Reviewers of the Year



ALSPAC Mercury Study and Fish Consumers

Michael Gochfeld, Joanna Burger, Alan H. Stern, Gary Ginsberg, and Henry Anderson | A38

ALSPAC Mercury Study and Fish Consumers: Golding et al. Respond

Jean Golding, Colin D. Steer, Tony Lowery, and Joseph R. Hibbeln | A38

Iodine-131 and Thyroid Function

Wenjie Sun | A40

Iodine-131 and Thyroid Function: Ostroumova et al. Respond

Evgenia Ostroumova, Alexander Rozhko, Maureen Hatch, Kyoji Furukawa, Olga Polyanskaya, Robert J. McConnell, Eldar Nadyrov, Sergey Petrenko, George Romanov, Vasilina Yauseyenka, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Viktor Minenko, Alexander Prokopovich, Irina Savasteeva, Lydia B. Zablotska, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, and Alina V. Brenner | A40

Retraction: G-Protein–Coupled Receptor 30 and Estrogen Receptor-α Are Involved in the Proliferative Effects Induced by Atrazine in Ovarian Cancer Cells



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