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Environmental Health Perspectives

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July 2014 | Volume 122 | Issue 7


July 2014 coverFocus

Rethinking Sterile: The Hospital Microbiome

Carrie Arnold | A182

Hospitals, despite the historical emphasis on sterility of health care environments, are now understood to be microbial ecosystems unto themselves. Investigators are studying these hospital microbiomes with an eye toward reducing hospital-acquired infections and optimizing patient health.

Image: © elisegarnotte/iStock; phipatbig/Shutterstock

Conceptual illustration of research reproducibility and scientific advancementSpheres of Influence

Research Wranglers: Initiatives to Improve Reproducibility of Study Findings

Charles W. Schmidt | A188

Funding agencies and research journals are crafting guidelines for well-designed studies with the goal of ensuring that published scientific findings are reproducible—especially those that provide a rationale for human clinical trials or for new regulations and policies with public health impacts.

Image: © Jim Frazier

Science Selections

Science and Policy: Understanding the Role of Value Judgments

Janet Pelley | A192

Also see Elliott and Resnik, p. 647

In the Neighborhood: Metabolic Outcomes among Residents Exposed to Aircraft Noise

Carol Potera | A193

Also see Eriksson et al., p. 687

Building a Solid Case: Cigarette Smoking and Epigenomic Alterations

Wendee Nicole | A194

Also see Harlid et al., p. 673

Plugging the Holes in Water Distribution Systems: Deficiencies May Contribute to Gastrointestinal Illnesses

Julia R. Barrett | A195

Also see Ercumen et al., p. 651


Science, Policy, and the Transparency of Values

Kevin C. Elliott and David B. Resnik | 647

Also see Science Selections, p. A192


Water Distribution System Deficiencies and Gastrointestinal Illness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Ayse Ercumen, Joshua S. Gruber, and John M. Colford Jr. | 651

Also see Science Selections, p. A195

Tetrachloroethylene Exposure and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Dry-Cleaning-Worker Studies

Jelle Vlaanderen, Kurt Straif, Avima Ruder, Aaron Blair, Johnni Hansen, Elsebeth Lynge, Barbara Charbotel, Dana Loomis, Timo Kauppinen, Pentti Kyyronen, Eero Pukkala, Elisabete Weiderpass, and Neela Guha | 661

Mercury Exposure and Health Impacts among Individuals in the Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Community: A Comprehensive Review

Herman Gibb and Keri Grace O’Leary | 667


CpG Sites Associated with Cigarette Smoking: Analysis of Epigenome-Wide Data from the Sister Study

Sophia Harlid, Zongli Xu, Vijayalakshmi Panduri, Dale P. Sandler, and Jack A. Taylor | 673

Also see Science Selections, p. A194

Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger

Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Michelle C. Stanton, Peter J. Diggle, Sylwia Trzaska, Ron L. Miller, Jan P. Perlwitz, José M. Baldasano, Emilio Cuevas, Pietro Ceccato, Pascal Yaka, and Madeleine C. Thomson | 679

Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

Charlotta Eriksson, Agneta Hilding, Andrei Pyko, Gösta Bluhm, Göran Pershagen, and Claes-Göran Östenson | 687

Also see Science Selections, p. A193

Predictors of Blood Trihalomethane Concentrations in NHANES 1999–2006

Anne M. Riederer, Radhika Dhingra, Benjamin C. Blount, and Kyle Steenland | 695

Association between Source-Specific Particulate Matter Air Pollution and hs-CRP: Local Traffic and Industrial Emissions

Frauke Hennig, Kateryna Fuks, Susanne Moebus, Gudrun Weinmayr, Michael Memmesheimer, Hermann Jakobs, Martina Bröcker-Preuss, Dagmar Führer-Sakel, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, and Barbara Hoffmann on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group | 703

Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for Literature-Based Environmental Health Science Assessments

Andrew A. Rooney, Abee L. Boyles, Mary S. Wolfe, John R. Bucher, and Kristina A. Thayer | 711

Plasma microRNA Expression and Micronuclei Frequency in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Qifei Deng, Suli Huang, Xiao Zhang, Wangzhen Zhang, Jing Feng, Tian Wang, Die Hu, Lei Guan, Jun Li, Xiayun Dai, Huaxin Deng, Xiaomin Zhang, and Tangchun Wu | 719

Associations of Short-Term Particle and Noise Exposures with Markers of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Health among Highway Maintenance Workers

Reto Meier, Wayne E. Cascio, Andrew J. Ghio, Pascal Wild, Brigitta Danuser, and Michael Riediker | 726

Predictors and Variability of Repeat Measurements of Urinary Phenols and Parabens in a Cohort of Shanghai Women and Men

Lawrence S. Engel, Jessie P. Buckley, Gong Yang, Linda M. Liao, Jaya Satagopan, Antonia M. Calafat, Charles E. Matthews, Qiuyin Cai, Bu-Tian Ji, Hui Cai, Stephanie M. Engel, Mary S. Wolff, Nathaniel Rothman, Wei Zheng, Yong-Bing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yu-Tang Gao, and Wong-Ho Chow | 733

Drinking-Water Disinfection By-products and Semen Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study in China

Qiang Zeng, Yi-Xin Wang, Shao-Hua Xie, Liang Xu, Yong-Zhe Chen, Min Li, Jing Yue, Yu-Feng Li, Ai-Lin Liu, and Wen-Qing Lu | 741

Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

Jeremy P. Langrish, Simon J. Watts, Amanda J. Hunter, Anoop S.V. Shah, Jenny A. Bosson, Jon Unosson, Stefan Barath, Magnus Lundbäck, Flemming R. Cassee, Ken Donaldson, Thomas Sandström, Anders Blomberg, David E. Newby, and Nicholas L. Mills | 747

Children’s Health

The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead–Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

Jennifer Richmond-Bryant, Qingyu Meng, Allen Davis, Jonathan Cohen, Shou-En Lu, David Svendsgaard, James S. Brown, Lauren Tuttle, Heidi Hubbard, Joann Rice, Ellen Kirrane, Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler, Dennis Kotchmar, Erin P. Hines, and Mary Ross | 754

Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age

Christina Riedel, Nora Fenske, Manfred J. Müller, Sandra Plachta-Danielzik, Thomas Keil, Linus Grabenhenrich, and Rüdiger von Kries | 761



Intersection of Systematic Review Methodology with the NIH Reproducibility Initiative

Kristina A. Thayer, Mary S. Wolfe, Andrew A. Rooney, Abee L. Boyles, John R. Bucher, and Linda S. Birnbaum | A176


Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides in New York City

John H. Ross and Michael E. Ginevan | A178

Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides: McKelvey et al. Respond

Wendy McKelvey, J. Bryan Jacobson, Daniel Kass, and Dana B. Barr | A178


Erratum: “Predictors of Plasma DDT and DDE Concentrations among Women Exposed to Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB)”


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