Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Relation to Birth Outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005–2010

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206372



Table 4. Associations between serum PFOA and PFOS and PIH.
PFC metric Crude OR
All births
n = 1,600 (106 cases)
Adjusteda OR (95% CI)
All births
= 1,600 (106 cases)
Adjusteda OR (95% CI)
First prospectiveb = 770 (43 cases)
aAdjusted for maternal age (cubic terms), educational level (< 12 years, 12, 13–15, ≥ 16), smoking status (current, former, non), parity (0, ≥ 1), BMI (underweight, normal, overweight, obese), self-reported diabetes, time between conception and serum measurement (year strata). bFirst pregnancy conceived after serum measurement among nonpregnant women. cUntransformed, IQR PFOS = 10 ng/mL, IQR PFOA = 22 ng/mL.
PFOA      
Per in unit increase 1.18 1.27 (1.05, 1.55) 1.23 (0.92, 1.64)
Per IQR increasec 1.04 1.06 (0.99, 1.14) 1.04 (0.92, 1.18)
Quintile (ng/mL)   p-trend = 0.005 p-trend = 0.124
0 to < 6.9 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
6.9 to < 11.1 2.37 2.39 (1.05, 5.46) 0.62 (0.13, 3.01)
11.1 to < 18.9 2.72 3.43 (1.50, 7.82) 2.68 (0.78, 9.23)
18.9 to < 37.2 2.71 3.12 (1.35, 7.18) 2.30 (0.66, 8.00)
≥ 37.2 2.59 3.16 (1.35, 7.38) 1.69 (0.45, 6.28)
PFOS      
Per in unit increase 1.36 1.47 (1.06, 2.04) 2.02 (1.11, 3.66)
Per IQR increasec 1.13 1.16 (0.94, 1.43) 1.38 (1.05, 1.80)
Quintile (ng/mL)   p-trend = 0.107 p-trend = 0.092
0 to < 8.6 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
8.6 to < 12.1 1.48 1.46 (0.69, 3.11) 2.06 (0.49, 8.72)
12.1 to < 15.9 2.43 2.71 (1.33, 5.52) 3.92 (1.06, 14.53)
15.9 to < 21.4 2.03 2.21 (1.07, 4.54) 2.47 (0.67, 9.09)
≥ 21.4 1.45 1.56 (0.72, 3.38) 3.35 (0.94, 11.98)