Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Pesticides and Behavioral Problems in Canadian Children

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306667



Table 2. Concentration of organophosphate (nmol/L) and pyrethroid (μg/L) urinary metabolites according to characteristics of study participants (weighted statistics; n = 1,030).
Participant characteristics n (%) GM (SE)
∑DAP cis-DCCA trans-DCCA 3-PBA
Abbreviations: —, not calculated because of insufficient observations; GM, geometric mean; SE, standard error.
aParent report of daily tobacco smoking inside the home. bUsing the Cole method of classification (Cole et al. 1995). cParent-reported pesticide use in the last month for chemicals used indoors to control roaches, ants, termites, or other insects. dParent-reported use in the last month of chemicals on the lawn, yard, or the surrounding fields, woods, or orchards to kill insects or weeds, or to control plant diseases. eCoefficient of variation for those estimations exceeded 30%. fParent-reported pesticide use in the last month for chemicals used to control head lice on family members or fleas on pets.
Age (years)          
6–8 458 (47) 103.9 (8.2) 0.06 (0.01) 0.18 (0.02) 0.22 (0.03)
9–11 572 (53) 87.2 (8.4) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.02) 0.20 (0.02)
Sex          
Boys 529 (52) 94.0 (9.7) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.02) 0.20 (0.03)
Girls 501 (48) 95.6 (10.2) 0.06 (0.01) 0.18 (0.02) 0.22 (0.03)
Race/ethnicity          
White 793 (79) 99.5 (8.7) 0.05 (0.01) 0.16 (0.01) 0.19 (0.02)
Non-white 203 (21) 81.6 (9.9) 0.08 (0.01) 0.25 (0.03) 0.34 (0.03)
Missing 34 80.5 (16.0) 0.04 (0.01) 0.14 (0.05) 0.15 (0.04)
Family income (Can$)          
0–59,999 369 (38) 86.1 (6.9) 0.06 (0.01) 0.19 (0.02) 0.23 (0.03)
60,000–99,999 295 (28) 91.7 (11.7) 0.05 (0.01) 0.16 (0.02) 0.18 (0.02)
≥ 100,000 337 (34) 103.0 (12.0) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.02) 0.21 (0.03)
Missing 29 167 (71.7) 0.07 (0.02) 0.21 (0.05) 0.22 (0.06)
Parental education          
Less than high school diploma 170 (17) 95.3 (14.6) 0.06 (0.00) 0.19 (0.02) 0.21 (0.02)
High school diploma and above 835 (83) 97.8 (8.2) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.02) 0.21 (0.03)
Missing 25 37.0 (6.9) 0.06 (0.01) 0.19 (0.05) 0.36 (0.14)
Maternal smoking during pregnancy          
No 842 (83) 95.0 (8.1) 0.06 (0.01) 0.18 (0.02) 0.22 (0.03)
Yes 154 (17) 94.2 (17.2) 0.05 (0.01) 0.16 (0.02) 0.18 (0.03)
Missing 34 91.0 (13.8) 0.05 (0.01) 0.16 (0.03) 0.21 (0.04)
Environmental tobacco smokea          
No 917 (10) 93.7 (7.3) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.01) 0.21 (0.02)
Yes 113 (90) 104.8 (16.4) 0.06 (0.01) 0.22 (0.04) 0.24 (0.05)
BMIb          
Thin 809 (77) 97.2 (6.8) 0.05 (0.00) 0.17 (0.01) 0.21 (0.02)
Overweight 151 (16) 87.2 (18.2) 0.06 (0.01) 0.19 (0.04) 0.20 (0.05)
Obese 68 (7) 81.3 (12.8) 0.06 (0.01) 0.16 (0.04) 0.21 (0.05)
Missing 2
Fasting status          
No (≤ 10 hr) 529 (50) 132.1 (13.5) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.01) 0.19 (0.02)
Yes (> 10 hr) 501 (50) 68.2 (5.3) 0.05 (0.01) 0.18 (0.02) 0.23 (0.03)
Blood lead concentration (μg/dL)          
< 0.9 441 (42) 96.1 (8.4) 0.05 (0.01) 0.16 (0.02) 0.19 (0.03)
≥ 0.9 440 (58) 93.2 (8.1) 0.06 (0.01) 0.20 (0.02) 0.23 (0.02)
Missing 149 95.0 (12.9) 0.05 (0.01) 0.18 (0.03) 0.21 (0.04)
Pesticides used indoorsc          
No 993 (96) 93.5 (7.1) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.01) 0.20 (0.02)
Yes 36 (4) 129.8 (31.4) 0.13 (0.02) 0.47 (0.11) 0.61 (0.12)
Missing 1
Pesticides used outdoorsd          
No 935 (93) 99.1 (6.8) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.02) 0.21 (0.03)
Yes 79 (7) 83.7 (24.4) 0.06 (0.01) 0.19 (0.04) 0.26 (0.05)
Missinge 16 50.0 (17.3) 0.05 (0.03) 0.17 (0.11) 0.16 (0.11)
Pesticides to treat pets/head licef          
No 982 (96) 93.1 (7.3) 0.05 (0.01) 0.17 (0.01) 0.20 (0.02)
Yes 47 (4) 139.6 (34.2) 0.12 (0.04) 0.42 (0.14) 0.46 (0.14)
Missing 1
Any use of pesticides          
No 879 (86) 93.0 (6.8) 0.05 (0.01) 0.16 (0.02) 0.19 (0.02)
Yes 151 (14) 106.0 (16.6) 0.08 (0.01) 0.29 (0.05) 0.36 (0.06)
Total 1,030 (100) 94.7 (7.2) 0.05 (0.01) 0.18 (0.01) 0.21 (0.03)