Urban Tree Canopy and Asthma, Wheeze, Rhinitis, and Allergic Sensitization to Tree Pollen in a New York City Birth Cohort

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205513



Table 4. Associations per SD of tree canopy coverage near prenatal address with asthma, wheeze, ­rhinitis, and allergic sensitization.
  Unadjusted Adjusteda
RR (95% CI) p-Value RR (95% CI) p-Value
Values shown are risk ratios for regression models examining the association of local tree canopy cover using 2001 source data for 0.25-km buffers around prenatal address; tree canopy has been rescaled to a z-score so that the RRs shown are for a 1-SD increase in tree canopy coverage; the cluster robust standard errors for these analyses account for clustering within community districts.
aAdjusted models included the following covariates: sex, age at the time of outcome measurement, ethnicity, maternal asthma, previous birth, other previous pregnancy, Medicaid enrollment, tobacco smoke in the home, active maternal smoking, and the following characteristics of 0.25-km buffers: population density, percent poverty, percent park land, and estimated traffic volume.
Reported asthma diagnosis at age 5 years 1.06 (0.93, 1.22) 0.39 1.11 (0.85, 1.45) 0.42
Reported asthma diagnosis at age 7 years 1.07 (0.99, 1.16) 0.09 1.17 (1.02, 1.33) 0.02
Wheeze at age 5 years 0.95 (0.82, 1.08) 0.42 1.15 (0.95, 1.39) 0.16
Wheeze at age 7 years 0.98 (0.90, 1.08) 0.75 1.13 (0.97, 1.32) 0.11
Rhinitis at age 5 years 1.14 (0.87, 1.50) 0.36 1.60 (0.79, 3.22) 0.19
Rhinitis at age 7 years 0.89 (0.68, 1.17) 0.40 1.40 (0.63, 3.08) 0.41
Any specific allergic sensitization 1.03 (0.89, 1.19) 0.735 1.20 (1.05, 1.37) 0.008
Allergic sensitization to tree pollen 1.33 (1.16, 1.52) < 0.001 1.43 (1.19, 1.72) < 0.001