Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206245



Table 2. Geometric mean (95% CI) of arsenic concentrations (in µg/kg) in cooked chicken meat by sample characteristics.
Chicken sample classification Total arsenic Speciated arsenic
n Total arsenic
[GM (95% CI)]
n iAs
[GM (95% CI)]
DMA
[GM (95% CI)]
Roxarsone+
n (%)
Roxarsone
[GM (95% CI)]
Unknown species+
n (%)
Unknown species
[GM (95% CI)]
+, positive for arsenic species. The LODs were 1 µg/kg DW for total arsenic, iAs, and DMA, and 2 µg/kg DW for roxarsone; values < LOD were imputed as the corresponding LOD divided by the square root of two.
aThe GMs for roxarsone and the unknown species were not calculated when concentrations for all samples were < LOD. bOrganic samples are not listed because arsenical drugs are not permitted for use in USDA Organic-certified chicken.
All 140 3.0 (2.5, 3.6) 78 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 3.5 (3.1, 4.0) 19 (24.3) 0.6 (0.5, 0.7) 13 (16.7) 0.3 (0.2, 0.3)
Package label                  
Conventional 69 3.4 (2.5, 4.5) 40 1.8 (1.4, 2.3) 2.6 (2.1, 3.1) 18 (45.0) 0.7 (0.6, 0.9) 13 (32.5) 0.3 (0.2, 0.3)
Antibiotic-free 34 2.0 (1.2, 3.0) 13 0.7 (0.5, 1.0) 4.2 (3.1, 5.6) 1 (7.7) 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) 0 (0)
Organic 37 3.4 (2.6, 4.5) 25 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) 4.9 (4.1, 5.9) 0 (0) a 0 (0)
Producer arsenical policyb                  
No known policy 46 5.6 (4.3, 7.4) 34 2.0 (1.6, 2.5) 3.8 (3.0, 4.9) 18 (52.9) 0.7 (0.6, 1.0) 13 (38.2) 0.4 (0.3, 0.5)
Conventional with prohibitory policy 57 1.6 (1.2, 2.3) 19 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) 2.6 (2.1, 3.2) 1 (6.3) 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) 0 (0)
Roxarsone detection                  
Negative 121 2.4 (2.0, 2.9) 59 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 3.6 (3.1, 4.2) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Positive 19 10.2 (7.8, 13.4) 19 2.3 (1.7, 3.1) 3.2 (2.5, 4.0) 19 (100) 1.3 (1.0, 1.7) 13 (68.4) 0.7 (0.4, 1.0)
Metropolitan area                  
Atlanta, GA 13 2.2 (1.0, 5.0) 9 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 3.2 (2.4, 4.3) 2 (25.0) 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 2 (25.0) 0.3 (0.2, 0.8)
Austin, TX 17 3.3 (2.0, 5.6) 9 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) 2.9 (2.0, 4.4) 5 (55.6) 0.6 (0.4, 1.2) 4 (44.4) 0.4 (0.2, 0.7)
Baltimore, MD 13 4.1 (2.1, 7.9) 9 1.9 (1.2, 3.0) 3.0 (1.5, 6.0) 3 (33.3) 0.6 (0.4, 1.0) 2 (22.2) 0.3 (0.2, 0.5)
Denver, CO 17 3.9 (2.2, 6.8) 11 1.4 (0.8, 2.6) 3.5 (2.5, 4.8) 3 (27.3) 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) 0 (0)
Fayetteville, AR 14 3.1 (1.8, 5.5) 9 0.9 (0.4, 2.1) 2.3 (1.5, 3.7) 1 (12.5) 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) 0 (0)
Flagstaff, AZ 12 5.8 (3.6, 9.5) 9 1.4 (0.8, 1.8) 4.7 (3.2, 6.7) 3 (33.3) 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 3 (33.3) 0.4 (0.2, 0.8)
Los Angeles, CA 12 3.9 (2.2, 7.0) 7 1.3 (0.6, 2.8) 4.4 (2.8, 6.8) 2 (28.6) 0.7 (0.3, 1.4) 2 (47.1) 0.4 (0.2, 0.9)
New York, NY 16 1.0 (0.4, 2.4) 5 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 7.7 (4.1, 14.5) 0 (0) 0 (0)
San Francisco, CA 13 2.7 (1.9, 3.8) 6 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 3.4 (2.7, 4.3) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Seattle, WA 13 2.6 (2.0, 3.4) 4 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) 3.2 (2.1, 6.7) 0 (0) 0 (0)