Economic Costs of Childhood Lead Exposure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206424



Table 3. LEP lost in Africa, Asia, Latin America/Caribbean for each 1-year cohort of children < 5 years of age.
WHO region WHO subregion Presumed IQ loss (millions of points) Lost LEP per IQ point (base case) Population in each 1-year cohort of < 5 years (million, except Caribbean) Lost LEP per 1-year cohort
of < 5 years [billions
of international dollars (range, including both sensitivity analyses)]
WHO, World Health Organization. Economic losses for all countries in Middle Africa, Central Asia, and for the Caribbean could be calculated only using our regression model to estimate country BLL, because no recent or complete data were available for which to use the method described by Fewtrell et al. (2003)
Africa Northern Africa 15.3 $26,400 4.7 $48.4 ($41.1–$57.6)
Africa Eastern Africa 36.0 $16,500 10.6 $23.1 ($20.4–$29.1)
Africa Western Africa 28.9 $13,100 10.2 $27.9 ($24.6–$51.6)
Africa Middle Africa 14.7 $17,600 4.4 $14.9 ($13.1–$17.8)
Africa Southern Africa 3.8 $20,500 1.2 $20.3 ($17.8–$24.0)
Africa Total 98.6 $94,100 31.1 $134.7 ($118.5–$160.3) or
4.03% of GDP PPP (3.54%–4.80%)
Asia Eastern Asia 55.1 $6,300 16.4 $227.7 ($193.9–$270.9)
Asia Southern Asia 176.3 $17,600 36.3 $325.1 ($238.7–$386.9)
Asia Southeastern Asia 36.4 $23,100 10.7 $90.2 ($76.8–$107.4)
Asia Western Asia 10.9 $36,500 4.1 $42.2 ($22.5–$50.2)
Asia Central Asia 4.9 $15,200 1.3 $14.7 ($12.9–$17.5)
Asia Total 283.6 $98,600 68.8 $699.9 ($532.0–$832.9) or
1.88% of GDP PPP (1.43%–2.24%)
Latin America/Caribbean Central America 7.1 $35,200 3.3 $42.0 ($18.2–$50.0)
Latin America/Caribbean South America 15.9 $64,000 6.8 $96.2 ($59.9– $114.5)
Latin America/Caribbean Caribbean 1.5 $54,800 514,000 $4.1 ($3.6– $4.9)
Latin America/Caribbean Total 24.5 $154,000 10.6 $142.3 ($78.1–$169.3) or 2.04%
of GDP PPP (1.12%–2.42%)