Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206397



Table 3. Associations between maternal PCBs, HCB, and p,p´-DDE serum concentrations and offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (= 872) [HRa (95% CI)].
POPs in tertiles (range) Raw model Adjusted modelb
aEstimated in a Cox regression model with age as the underlying time scale. ­bAdjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, parity, maternal smoking, maternal education, maternal alcohol intake, maternal cholesterol, maternal triglycerides, child birth weight, and sex. cEstimated with median concentrations in each tertile entered in the Cox regression model as a continuous variable. dSum of PCB congeners 118 and 156. eSum of PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, and 180. fSum of PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180.
PCB–118 (ng/mL)    
1st (0.02–0.14) 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.14–0.20) 1.50 (0.92, 2.45) 1.60 (0.96, 2.66)
3rd (> 0.20–0.61) 1.69 (1.05, 2.73) 1.90 (1.12, 3.23)
p for trendc 0.04 0.02
PCB–156 (ng/mL)    
1st (0.01–0.08) 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.08–0.12) 1.33 (0.82, 2.15) 1.38 (0.84, 2.26)
3rd (> 0.12–0.92) 1.43 (0.90, 2.29) 1.45 (0.85, 2.46)
p for trendc 0.15 0.20
Dioxin-like PCBs (pmol/mL)d    
1st (0.13–0.67) 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.67–0.96) 1.45 (0.90, 2.35) 1.56 (0.95, 2.56)
3rd (> 0.96–4.10) 1.59 (0.99, 2.55) 1.75 (1.02, 2.98)
p for trendc 0.07 0.05
Non-dioxin-like PCBs (pmol/mL)e    
1st (1.23–7.09) 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 7.10–10.12) 1.10 (0.69, 1.77) 1.15 (0.70, 1.86)
3rd (> 10.12–76.55) 1.30 (0.83, 2.06) 1.30 (0.78, 2.17)
p for trendc 0.24 0.32
Sum of all PCBs (pmol/mL)f    
1st (1.43–7.72) 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 7.73–11.11) 1.10 (0.68, 1.76) 1.15 (0.70, 1.87)
3rd (> 11.11–80.65) 1.30 (0.83, 2.06) 1.30 (0.78, 2.17)
p for trendc 0.24 0.32
HCB (ng/mL)    
1st (0.07–0.45) 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.45–0.63) 1.26 (0.77, 2.07) 1.31 (0.79, 2.17)
3rd (> 0.63–2.45) 1.78 (1.12, 2.84) 1.92 (1.15, 3.21)
p for trendc 0.01 0.01
p,p´–DDE (ng/mL)    
1st (0.20–1.86) 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 1.86–3.24) 0.91 (0.57, 1.44) 0.92 (0.5, 1.47)
3rd (> 3.25–38.77) 1.09 (0.70, 1.71) 1.09 (0.67, 1.77)
p for trendc 0.62 0.64