Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206397



Table 4. Associations between maternal PCBs, HCB, and p,p´-DDE serum concentrations and the risk of offspring hospital diagnoses (= 872), self-reported doctor diagnosis of asthma (= 654), and self-reported current medication use (= 654) in the adjusted modela.
POPs in tertiles (range) Asthma hospital diagnoses
[HRb (95% CI)
= 872]
Self-reported lifetime diagnosis
[Odds ratioc (95% CI)
= 654]
Current self-reported medication use
[Odds ratioc (95% CI)
n= 654]
aAdjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, parity, maternal smoking, maternal education, maternal alcohol intake, maternal cholesterol, maternal triglycerides, child birth weight, and sex. bEstimated in a Cox regression model with age as the underlying time scale. cEstimated in a logistic regression model. dEstimated with median concentrations in each tertile entered in the Cox or logistic regression models as a continuous variable. eSum of PCB congeners 118 and 156. fSum of PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, and 180. gSum of PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180.
PCB-118 (ng/mL)      
1st (0.02–0.14) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.14–0.20) 0.85 (0.50, 1.46) 1.76 (0.94, 3.26) 1.90 (0.80, 4.52)
3rd (> 0.20–0.61) 1.31 (0.78, 2.20) 1.73 (0.90, 3.31) 2.49 (1.03, 5.99)
p for trendd 0.32 0.16 0.05
PCB-156 (ng/mL)      
1st (0.01–0.08) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.08–0.12) 1.38 (0.85, 2.25) 1.52 (0.83, 2.80) 1.75 (0.75, 4.07)
3rd (> 0.12–0.92) 0.94 (0.53, 1.66) 1.41 (0.73, 2.71) 2.01 (0.82, 4.93)
p for trendd 0.76 0.38 0.15
Dioxin-like PCBs (pmol/mL)e      
1st (0.13–0.67) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.67–0.96) 1.36 (0.84, 2.21) 1.83 (1.00, 3.36) 1.80 (0.79, 4.11)
3rd (> 0.96–4.10) 1.00 (0.57, 1.75) 1.45 (0.75, 2.83) 1.90 (0.79, 4.59)
p for trendd 0.40 0.40 0.19
Non-dioxin-like PCBs (pmol/mL)f      
1st (1.23–7.09) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 7.10–10.12) 1.01 (0.61, 1.68) 1.40 (0.77, 2.56) 1.35 (0.60, 3.00)
3rd (> 10.12–76.55) 1.19 (0.69, 2.04) 1.27 (0.67, 2.44) 1.48 (0.63, 3.46)
p for trendd 0.40 0.57 0.39
Sum of all PCBs (pmol/mL)g      
1st (1.43–7.72) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 7.73–11.11) 1.12 (0.68, 1.84) 1.59 (0.87, 2.90) 1.59 (0.71, 3.60)
3rd (> 11.11–80.65) 1.22 (0.71, 2.09) 1.30 (0.67, 2.51) 1.63 (0.68, 3.88)
p for trendd 0.30 0.59 0.32
HCB (ng/mL)      
1st (0.07–0.45) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 0.45–0.63) 1.66 (0.66, 4.13) 1.79 (0.97, 3.31) 3.38 (1.29, 8.85)
3rd (> 0.63–2.45) 1.84 (0.70, 4.86) 1.85 (0.97, 3.51) 4.18 (1.57, 11.15)
p for trendd 0.24 0.09 0.01
p,p´–DDE (ng/mL)      
1st (0.20–1.86) 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd (> 1.86–3.24) 1.17 (0.49, 2.80) 0.96 (0.55, 1.69) 0.95 (0.45, 1.98)
3rd (> 3.24–38.77) 1.14 (0.46, 2.85) 0.80 (0.44, 1.45) 0.86 (0.40, 1.85)
p for trendd 0.80 0.48 0.91