Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307187



Table 1. Summary of mother–infant lead levels in different matrices and transfer indices, Mexico City, 1997–1999.
Lead matrix or transfer index n Mean ± SD Minimum Maximum
Maternal (1 month postpartum)        
Blood lead (μg/dL) 81 7.7 ± 4.0 1.7 28.7
Plasma lead (μg/L) 81 0.1 ± 0.1 0.03 0.5
Breast milk lead (μg/L) 81 0.8 ± 0.7 0.04 3.2
Plasma–blood lead ratio 81 0.2 ± 0.1 0.06 0.42
Breast milk–blood lead ratio 81 1.2 ± 0.9 0.1 4.2
Breast milk–plasma lead ratio 81 7.7 ± 7.1 0.6 39.8
Infant (3 months of age)        
Blood lead (μg/dL 60 3.4 ± 2.2 0.5 14.5