Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307044



Table 1. Characteristics [n (%) or mean ± SD] of the CHARGE study population (= 970).
Characteristic ASD Delayed Typical p-Value
ASD vs. TD DD vs. TD
Total 486 168 316
Male 414 (85.2) 115 (68.5) 262 (82.9) 0.39 0.0003
Child’s age at enrollment (months) 36.7 ± 9.7 38.3 ± 8.9 36.9 ± 8.9 0.73 0.11
Childs race/ethnicity 0.12 < 0.0001
White 246 (50.6) 66 (39.3) 165 (52.2)
Hispanic 130 (26.8) 60 (35.7) 73 (23.1)
Other 110 (22.6) 41 (24.4) 78 (24.7)
Mother’s age (years) 31.3 ± 5.5 30.8 ± 6.6 31.1 ± 5.7 0.69 0.57
Father’s age (years) 33.9 ± 6.4 33.1 ± 7.8 33.5 ± 7.0 0.49 0.52
Mother’s education 0.12 < 0.0001
High school or less 67 (13.8) 51 (30.4) 46 (14.6)
Some college 197 (40.5) 68 (40.5) 100 (31.7)
College or professional 222 (45.7) 49 (29.2) 170 (53.8)
Father’s education 0.58 < 0.0001
High school or less 106 (21.8) 74 (44.1) 81 (25.6)
Some college 153 (31.5) 47 (27.9) 91 (28.8)
College or professional 225 (46.3) 44 (26.2) 144 (45.6)
Regional center/region < 0.0001 0.01
Alta 174 (35.8) 82 (48.8) 131 (41.5)
North Bay 64 (13.2) 19 (11.3) 53 (16.8)
East Bay 81 (16.7) 17 (10.1) 65 (20.6)
Valley Mountain 85 (17.5) 38 (22.6) 49 (15.5)
Southern California 82 (16.9) 12 (7.1) 18 (5.7)
Maternal birth place 0.07 0.0003
In the USA 367 (75.5) 127 (75.60 259 (82.0)
In Mexico 38 (7.8) 28 (16.7) 22 (7.0)
Outside USA or Mexico 81 (16.7) 13 (7.7) 35 (11.1)
Year of birth 0.0003 0.49
1999–2003 348(71.6) 94 (56.0) 187 (59.2)
2004–2008 138 (28.4) 74 (44.1) 129 (40.8)
Homeowner 320 (65.8) 100 (59.5) 242 (76.6) 0.001 < 0.0001
Private health insurance 402 (82.7) 118 (70.2) 270 (85.4) 0.31 < 0.0001
Periconceptional prenatal vitamin 252 (52.0) 79 (53.0) 189 (59.8) 0.003 0.01
Known chromosomal abnormality 11 (2.3) 50 (32.7) 0 (0.0)