Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307044



Table 2. Exposure to pesticide applications (any vs. none) within 1.5 km of the home during the 3 months before conception through delivery according to outcome (ASD = 486, DD = 168, TD = 316).
Exposure ASD DD TD
n Unweighted % Weighted % n Unweighted % Weighted % n Unweighted % Weighted %
The development and use of CHARGE survey weights were designed to correct for the nonsociodemographically representative participation, i.e., the differences in participants vs. nonparticipants with regard to key sociodemographic factors such as maternal education, insurance payment type, birth regional center, birth place of mother, and child race. Survey weights are based on the probability of participation in the study.
No agriculturally applied pesticides 342 70.4 70.1 124 73.8 66.9 219 69.3 72.2
Any agriculturally applied pesticides 144 29.6 29.9 44 26.2 33.0 97 30.7 27.8
Organophosphates 125 25.7 26.6 32 19.1 25.2 84 26.6 24.9
Chlorpyrifos 61 12.6 14.4 20 11.9 18.4 45 14.2 12.4
Pyrethroids 106 21.8 22.5 36 21.4 28.3 67 21.2 20.1
Type 1 pyrethroids 49 10.1 10.4 17 10.1 16.3 29 9.2 7.9
Type 2 pyrethroids 100 20.6 20.9 34 20.2 26.9 63 19.9 19.1
Carbamates 54 11.1 11.0 13 7.7 11.1 30 9.5 7.3
Organochlorines 24 4.9 4.9 4 2.4 3.9 10 3.2 3.3