Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307044



Table 4. Adjusted ORsa (95% CIs) for DD and residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (any vs. none) within prespecified buffers, by time period.b
Pesticide, buffer radius (km) Pregnancy Preconception 1st trimester 2nd trimester 3rd trimester
aMultivariate multinomial conditional logistic regression with survey weights and strata variables for matching variables. All models were adjusted for paternal education, home ownership, maternal place of birth, child race/ethnicity, maternal prenatal vitamin intake (during the 3 months before pregnancy through the first month), and year of birth. bPregnancy: conception (day 0) to the end of pregnancy; preconception: 90 days before conception; 1st trimester: 0–90 days; 2nd trimester: 91–180 days; 3rd trimester: 181 days–birth. cDue to low frequency of exposure, the cell counts were too small (< 10) to explore temporal associations, and thus are not presented here.
Organophosphates          
1.25 1.23 (0.65, 2.31) 1.20 (0.54, 2.65) 1.29 (0.60, 2.79) 1.62 (0.75, 3.48) 1.10 (0.46, 2.67)
1.5 1.07 (0.60, 1.92) 0.94 (0.45, 1.97) 1.00 (0.50, 1.99) 1.46 (0.72, 2.96) 0.92 (0.40, 2.13)
1.75 1.01 (0.59, 1.73) 1.30 (0.69, 2.46) 0.98 (0.54, 1.80) 1.52 (0.81, 2.85) 1.21 (0.60, 2.46)
Chlorpyrifos          
1.25 1.62 (0.68, 3.85) 1.73 (0.58, 5.17) 1.61 (0.53, 4.87) 1.73 (0.48, 6.19) 1.04 (0.25, 4.28)
1.5 1.31 (0.61, 2.82) 1.11 (0.41, 3.00) 1.27 (0.48, 3.36) 1.43 (0.46, 4.44) 0.73 (0.21, 2.48)
1.75 1.63 (0.84, 3.16) 1.34 (0.55, 3.25) 1.40 (0.62, 3.17) 1.63 (0.61, 4.39) 1.34 (0.50, 3.60)
Pyrethroids          
1.25 1.53 (0.81, 2.90) 1.96 (0.90, 4.29) 1.70 (0.80, 3.61) 1.63 (0.72, 3.68) 1.69 (0.74, 3.88)
1.5 1.37 (0.76, 2.47) 1.44 (0.69, 3.03) 1.41 (0.72, 2.76) 1.27 (0.58, 2.79) 1.75 (0.81, 3.78)
1.75 1.19 (0.68, 2.08) 1.88 (0.98, 3.60) 1.36 (0.73, 2.51) 1.42 (0.72, 2.80) 2.34 (1.18, 4.67)
Type 2          
1.25 1.56 (0.81, 2.90) 1.43 (0.61, 3.33) 1.60 (0.72, 3.59) 1.78 (0.78, 4.08) 1.80 (0.77, 4.18)
1.5 1.46 (0.79, 2.70) 1.09 (0.48, 2.46) 1.49 (0.71, 3.12) 1.41 (0.64, 3.13) 1.87 (0.85, 4.11)
1.75 1.34 (0.76, 2.37) 1.18 (0.57, 2.43) 1.37 (0.71, 2.64) 1.66 (0.84, 3.28) 2.31 (1.15, 4.66)
Carbamatesc          
1.25 2.48 (1.04, 5.91)
1.5 1.65 (0.70, 3.89)
1.75 1.32 (0.60, 2.88)