Residential Greenness and Birth Outcomes: Evaluating the Influence of Spatially Correlated Built-Environment Factors

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308049



Table 2. Summary of residential greenness and other spatially derived environmental exposure variables for the birth cohort (n = 64,705).
Exposure Mean ± SD Minimum P25 P50 P75 Maximum
P25, P50, and P75 are 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles.
aBlack carbon, based on the particle light absorption coefficient, was highly correlated with the concentrations of elemental carbon measured by traditional thermal/optical reflectance (R2 = 0.7–0.8); 10–5/m black carbon is approximately equivalent to 0.8 μg/m3 elemental carbon (Rich 2002).
Greenness            
NDVI Index 0.24 ± 0.08 –0.08 0.18 0.24 0.28 0.59
Air pollution            
NO–LUR (μg/m3) 31.5 ± 3.8 1.4 22.5 28.3 37.2 149.6
NO2–LUR (μg/m3) 33.7 ± 9.1 0.0 27.4 31.9 36.9 64.5
PM2.5–LUR (μg/m3) 4.1 ± 1.7 0.0 3.2 4.0 4.7 11.3
BC–LUR (10–5/m)a 1.6 ± 1.2 0.0 0.9 1.0 2.0 5.4
Noise [dB(A)]            
Traffic noise 60.2 ± 5.3 6.2 57.0 59.9 63.1 89.0
All noise 61.6 ± 5.2 6.2 58.5 61.1 64.5 94.7
Neighborhood walkability            
Walkability index 0.37 ± 3.07 –7.80 –1.80 –0.40 2.55 13.20
Park distance (m) 422 ± 383 1 200 325 525 5,850