Residential Greenness and Birth Outcomes: Evaluating the Influence of Spatially Correlated Built-Environment Factors

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308049



Table 3. ORs (95% CIs) for preterm birth and SGA, and average difference in birth weight based on separate models of associations with greenness and other spatially derived built environment exposure variables.
Exposure Very preterm birth
(< 30 weeks)
OR (95% CI)
Moderately preterm birth
(30–36 weeks)
OR (95% CI)
SGA
OR (95% CI)
Term birth weight
β (95% CI)
Q, quartile. Adjusted for sex, parity, First Nations status, maternal age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal education, income, and year and month of birth; term birth weight was additionally adjusted for completed weeks of gestation.
Greenness, NDVI 100 m        
Per 0.1 unit 0.91 (0.77, 1.07) 0.95 (0.91, 0.99) 0.97 (0.94, 1.00) 20.6 (16.5, 24.7)
Q1 (< 0.18) 1 1 1 0
Q2 (0.18–0.23) 0.94 (0.66, 1.33) 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 1.06 (0.99, 1.13) 3.2 (–6.2, 12.7)
Q3 (0.24–0.28) 0.85 (0.59, 1.24) 0.95 (0.86, 1.06) 1.01 (0.94, 1.08) 19.2 (9.4, 29.0)
Q4 (≥ 0.29) 0.80 (0.55, 1.18) 0.87 (0.78, 0.96) 0.95 (0.88, 1.03) 44.6 (34.8, 54.4)
Air pollution        
NO–LUR, per 10 μg/m3 1.00 (0.91, 1.11) 1.01 (0.99, 1.04) 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) –6.5 (–9.1, –3.9)
NO2–LUR, per 10 μg/m3 1.05 (0.91, 1.22) 1.02 (0.98, 1.06) 0.98 (0.96, 1.01) –5.2 (–9.1, –1.4)
PM2.5–LUR, per 1 μg/m3 1.07 (1.00, 1.15) 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) –3.1 (–5.1, –1.1)
BC–LUR, per 10–5/m 0.97 (0.87, 1.08) 1.00 (0.98, 1.03) 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) –3.4 (–6.2, –0.6)
Noise        
All noise, per 6 dB(A) 1.00 (0.86, 1.16) 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 1.10 (1.06, 1.13) –19.1 (–22.9, –15.3)
Traffic noise, per 6 dB(A) 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) 1.02 (0.98, 1.06) 1.09 (1.06, 1.12) –16.8 (–20.5, –13.1)
Neighborhood walkability        
Walkability index, per 4 units 1.06 (0.89, 1.27) 1.04 (1.00, 1.09) 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) –12.6 (–17.2, –8.0)
Distance to park, per 300 m 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.97 (0.94, 1.00) 0.97 (0.95, 0.99) 5.3 (2.7, 7.9)