Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore:
The Singapore Chinese Health Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307662



Table 1. Baseline characteristics of cohort members by current use of incense in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.
Characteristic Current users
(= 48,620)
Noncurrent users
(= 14,637)
Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%). There were no missing data for these variables.
Age at baseline (years) 56.5 ± 8.0 56.4 ± 8.2
BMI (kg/m2) 23.2 ± 3.3 22.9 ± 3.2
Gender    
Men 21,647 (44.5) 6,307 (43.1)
Women 26,937 (55.5) 8,330 (56.9)
Dialect    
Cantonese 21,487 (44.2) 7,797 (53.3)
Hokkien 27,133 (55.8) 6,840 (46.7)
Education    
No formal education 15,000 (30.8) 2,333 (15.9)
Primary school (1–6 years) 22,985 (47.3) 5,065 (34.6)
≥ Secondary school 10,635 (21.9) 7,329 (49.5)
Cigarette smoking    
Never 32,976 (67.8) 10,954 (74.8)
Former 5,346 (11.0) 1,647 (11.3)
Current 10,298 (21.2) 2,036 (13.9)
Alcohol consumption    
None/monthly 42,925 (88.3) 13,021 (88.9)
Weekly 3,940 (8.1) 1,166 (8.0)
Daily 1,755 (3.6) 450 (3.1)
Moderate physical activity (hr/week)    
< 0.5 38,444 (79.1) 10,828 (74.0)
0.5–3.9 6,406 (13.2) 2,382 (16.3)
≥ 4.0 3,770 (7.7) 1,427 (9.7)
History of disease    
Diabetes mellitus 4,486 (9.2) 1,210 (8.3)
Hypertension 11,481 (23.6) 3,573 (24.4)
Coronary heart disease 1,942 (4.0) 656 (4.5)
Stroke 706 (1.5) 241 (1.7)
Cancer 1,440 (3.0) 496 (3.4)
Sleep duration (hr/day) 7.0 ± 1.1 7.0 ± 1.1
Dietary intake (g/day)    
Vegetables and related juices 109.0 ± 62.8 115.6 ± 65.8
Fruits and related juices 192.9 ± 163.8 234.1 ± 182.3
Fiber 12.4 ± 5.7 13.7 ± 6.0
Polyunsaturated fat 8.6 ± 4.7 9.7 ± 5.2