Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore:
The Singapore Chinese Health Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307662



Table 2. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study (1993–2011).a
Exposure Participants
(n)
Person-years CVD CHD Stroke
Deaths HR (95% CI) Deaths HR (95% CI) Deaths HR (95% CI)
aThe estimates were generated using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age at recruitment; year of recruitment (1993–1995, 1996–1998); gender; dialect (Hokkien, Cantonese); education (no formal education, primary school, ≥ secondary school); BMI (< 20.0, 20.0–23.9, 24.0–27.9, ≥ 28.0 kg/m2); alcohol consumption (none, monthly, weekly, daily); years of smoking (never, < 20 years, 20–39 years, ≥ 40 years); amount of smoking (never, ≤ 12, 13–22, 23–32, ≥ 33 cigarettes/day); years since quitting smoking (never, < 1 year, 1–4 years, 5–19 years, ≥ 20 years); moderate physical activity (< 0.5, 0.5–3.9, ≥ 4.0 hr/week); duration of sleep (hr/day); daily energy intake (kcal/day); dietary intake of vegetables, fruits, fiber, poly­unsaturated fatty acids (grams/day, quartiles); and self-reported history of physician-diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, cancer, CHD, and stroke.
Status of incense use                
Never use 6,378 95,964 485 1.00 277 1.00 122 1.00
Former use 8,259 119,400 502 0.91 (0.80, 1.03) 286 0.90 (0.76, 1.06) 131 0.98 (0.77, 1.26)
Current use 48,620 711,397 4,056 1.06 (0.96, 1.16) 2,288 1.03 (0.91, 1.18) 1,128 1.18 (0.97, 1.43)
p for trend       0.03   0.21   0.03
Noncurrent use 14,637 215,364 987 1.00 563 1.00 253 1.00
Current use 48,620 711,937 4,056 1.12 (1.04, 1.20) 2,288 1.10 (1.00, 1.21) 1,128 1.19 (1.03, 1.37)
Frequency and duration of incense use                
Noncurrent use 14,637 215,364 987 1.00 563 1.00 253 1.00
Current, less than daily use 3,574 52,580 289 1.04 (0.91, 1.18) 156 0.98 (0.82, 1.17) 80 1.12 (0.87, 1.45)
Current, daily use for ≤ 20 years 1,313 20,156 64 1.08 (0.83, 1.39) 33 0.99 (0.70, 1.41) 18 1.11 (0.69, 1.80)
Current, daily use for > 20 years 43,733 638,660 3,703 1.12 (1.04, 1.21) 2,099 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) 1,030 1.20 (1.04, 1.38)
p for trend       0.002   0.01   0.01
Current, daily use for 20–40 years 5,867 91,508 403 1.11 (0.99, 1.25) 226 1.08 (0.92, 1.27) 114 1.22 (0.97, 1.54)
Current, daily use for > 40 years 37,866 547,152 3,300 1.12 (1.04, 1.21) 1,873 1.12 (1.01, 1.23) 916 1.20 (1.04, 1.38)