Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore:
The Singapore Chinese Health Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307662



Table 3. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, stratified by baseline history of CVD, smoking, or education level at baseline (1993–2011).a
Exposure Participants Person-years CVD CHD Stroke
Deaths HR (95% CI) Deaths HR (95% CI) Deaths HR (95% CI)
aThe p for interactions between incense use (binary variable) and baseline CHD/stroke (binary variable) were 0.02, 0.15, and 0.28 for CVD, CHD, and stroke mortality, respectively. The p for interactions between incense use (binary variable) and smoking status (never, former, and current smokers) were 0.27, 0.21, and 0.21 for CVD, CHD, and stroke mortality, respectively. The p for interactions between incense use (binary variable) and education level (no formal education, primary school, and ≥ secondary school) were 0.03, 0.03, and 0.81 for CVD, CHD, and stroke mortality, respectively. bThe estimates were generated using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age at recruitment; year of recruitment; gender; dialect; education; BMI; alcohol consumption; years of smoking; amount of smoking; years since quitting smoking; moderate physical activity; duration of sleep; daily energy intake; dietary intake of vegetables, fruits, fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and self-reported history of physician-diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. cThe estimates were generated using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age at recruitment; year of recruitment; gender; dialect; education; BMI; alcohol consumption; moderate activity; duration of sleep; daily energy intake; dietary intake of vegetables, fruits, fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and self-reported history of physician-diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, cancer, CHD, and stroke. dThe estimates were generated using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age at recruitment; year of recruitment; gender; dialect; BMI; alcohol consumption; years of smoking; amount of smoking; years since quitting smoking; moderate physical activity; duration of sleep; daily energy intake; dietary intake of vegetables, fruits, fiber, and poly­unsaturated fatty acids; and self-reported history of physician-diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, cancer, CHD, and stroke.
Stratified by baseline CHD or strokeb                
Without baseline CHD or stroke                
Noncurrent use 13,774 204,917 757 1.00 421 1.00 203 1.00
Current use 46,082 681,316 3,378 1.16 (1.07, 1.26) 1,847 1.13 (1.01, 1.26) 972 1.24 (1.06, 1.45)
With baseline CHD or stroke                
Noncurrent use 863 10,447 230 1.00 142 1.00 50 1.00
Current use 2,538 30,081 678 1.00 (0.86, 1.17) 441 1.04 (0.85, 1.27) 156 1.06 (0.76, 1.48)
Stratified by smoking statusc                
Never-smokers                
Noncurrent use 10,954 165,511 582 1.00 314 1.00 160 1.00
Current use 32,976 499,294 2,144 1.12 (1.02, 1.23) 1,137 1.10 (0.96, 1.25) 672 1.26 (1.05, 1.51)
Former smokers                
Noncurrent use 1,647 22,125 169 1.00 100 1.00 37 1.00
Current use 5,346 71,726 651 1.19 (1.00, 1.42) 407 1.25 (1.00, 1.57) 154 1.18 (0.81, 1.71)
Current smokers                
Noncurrent use 2,036 27,728 236 1.00 149 1.00 56 1.00
Current use 10,298 140,377 1,261 1.05 (0.91, 1.22) 744 1.00 (0.83, 1.20) 302 1.03 (0.77, 1.38)
Stratified by education leveld                
No formal education                
Noncurrent use 2,333 33,063 272 1.00 151 1.00 74 1.00
Current use 15,000 215,540 1,650 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 884 0.93 (0.78, 1.11) 519 1.13 (0.88, 1.45)
Primary school                
Noncurrent use 5,065 73,625 383 1.00 223 1.00 94 1.00
Current use 22,985 336,371 1,844 1.14 (1.02, 1.27) 1,068 1.10 (0.95, 1.27) 484 1.30 (1.04, 1.63)
≥ Secondary school                
Noncurrent use 7,239 108,676 332 1.00 189 1.00 85 1.00
Current use 10,635 159,485 562 1.25 (1.09, 1.44) 336 1.28 (1.06, 1.53) 125 1.17 (0.88, 1.55)