Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679



Table 2. General, occupational, environmental, and dietary characteristics of pregnant women from the ISA birth cohort study with at least one urine sample (n = 445).
Characteristic n (%)
Information was missing for several women with at least one urine sample: smoking (n = 1), alcohol use (n = 3), drug use (n = 2), partner’s occupation (n = 18), washing work clothes day of (n = 13)/before (n = 20) sampling, aerial spraying day of (n = 16)/before (n = 20) sampling, consumption of vegetables (n = 7), consumption of green bananas/plantains (n = 10), consumption of rice and beans (n = 4), consumption of fruits (n = 5).
aAll immigrant women were born in Nicaragua except for one who was born in El Salvador.
Marital status  
Married/living as married 336 (76)
Single 109 (24)
Country of birth  
Costa Rica 361 (81)
Other Central Americana 84 (19)
Smoking during pregnancy  
Yes 18 (4)
No 426 (96)
≥ 1 glass of alcohol consumption during pregnancy  
Yes 14 (3)
No 428 (97)
Drug use during pregnancy  
Yes 5 (1)
No 438 (99)
Source of drinking water  
Aqueduct 348 (78)
Other: well, rain water, river 97 (22)
Occupation at enrollment  
Working in banana plantations 33 (7)
Other agricultural work 3 (1)
Other work (not agricultural) 78 (16)
Housewives and/or not working 331 (76)
Partner’s occupation at enrollment  
Working on banana plantations 245 (57)
Other agricultural work 25 (6)
Other work (not agricultural) 132 (31)
Not working 25 (6)
Living with agricultural worker(s) during pregnancy  
Yes 347 (78)
No 98 (22)
Washed agricultural work clothes on day of sample collection  
Yes 87 (20)
No 345 (80)
Washed agricultural work clothes on day before sample collection  
Yes 84 (20)
No 341 (80)
Aerial spraying near residence on day of sample collection  
Yes 106 (25)
No 323 (75)
Aerial spraying near residence on day before sample collection  
Yes 104 (25)
No 311 (75)
Consumption of green bananas or plantains  
< 5 times/week 167 (38)
≥ 5 but < 10 times/week 169 (39)
≥ 10 times/week 99 (23)
Consumption of other vegetables  
< 5 times/week 89 (20)
≥ 5 but < 10 times/week 126 (29)
≥ 10 but < 15 and times/week 192 (44)
≥ 15 times a week 31 (7)
Consumption of rice and beans  
< 10 times/week 168 (38)
≥ 10 but < 15 times/week 139 (32)
≥ 15 times/week 134 (30)
Consumption of fruits  
< 1 times/week 61 (14)
1–2 times/week 181 (41)
≥ 3 but < 5 times/week 95 (22)
≥ 5 times/week 103 (23)