Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679



Table 3. Distribution and variability of urinary ETU concentrations from pregnant women from the ISA birth cohort study.
ETU No. of samples
(no. of women)
Mean ± SD GM (GSD) Minimum P10 P25 P50 P75 P90 Maximum S2Ba S2W ICC
Abbreviations: GM, geometric mean; GSD, geometric standard deviation; P, percentile; S2B, variance between women; S2W, variance within women.
aThe sample with the maximum ETU concentration (207 μg/L, 236.3 μg/Lsg, and 196.6 μg/g.cr) was excluded from analysis for estimation of variance components, ICC, and estimation of percent difference between trimesters of pregnancy. bPercent difference in ETU was –13% (95% CI: –35, 6.3%) and –8.0% (95% CI: –0.30, 11%) for second and third trimester compared with first trimester, respectively. cPercent difference in ETU-sg was –4.5% (95% CI: –22, 10%) and –4.1% (95% CI: –16, 6.2%) for second and third trimester compared with first trimester, respectively. dPercent difference in ETU-cr was 3.8% (95% CI: –12, 22%) and 4.7% (95% CI: –11, 24%) for second and third trimester compared with first trimester, respectively.
Uncorrected (μg/L)                          
Overall 872 (445) 4.2 ± 8.0 2.9 (2.2) 0.3 1.1 1.8 2.9 4.6 7.5 207.0 1.12 1.63 0.18
1st trimesterb 118 (117) 4.6 ± 6.3 3.1 (2.2) 0.5 1.3 1.9 2.6 4.7 8.2 42.0
2nd trimester 404 (367) 3.6 ± 2.9 2.8 (2.1) 0.3 1.1 1.8 2.9 4.4 6.9 23.9 1.05 1.59 0.10
3rd trimester 350 (306) 4.7 ± 11.7 2.9 (2.4) 0.3 1.0 1.7 3.1 4.7 8.4 207.0 1.23 1.60 0.31
Corrected (μg/Lspecific gravity-corrected)                          
Overall 872 (445) 4.1 (8.6) 3.1 (1.9) 0.2 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.5 6.8 236.3 1.06 1.40 0.15
1st trimesterc 118 (117) 4.1 (4.2) 3.1 (2.0) 0.6 1.3 2.0 2.7 4.9 6.8 29.2
2nd trimester 404 (367) 3.6 (2.5) 3.0 (1.8) 0.2 1.5 2.0 2.9 4.3 6.3 20.1 1.10 1.26 0.28
3rd trimester 350 (306) 4.7 (13.0) 3.2 (1.9) 0.5 1.4 2.0 3.1 4.7 7.3 236.3 1.16 1.35 0.33
Corrected (μg/g creatinine)                          
Overall 870 (445) 4.1 ± 7.5 3.0 (2.0) 0.1 1.3 1.9 2.9 4.5 6.9 196.6 1.09 1.46 0.19
1st trimesterd 117 (117) 3.9 ± 3.7 2.8 (2.1) 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.8 4.8 7.4 20.4
2nd trimester 404 (367) 3.8 ± 3.0 3.0 (2.0) 0.1 1.4 1.9 2.9 4.5 6.8 21.1 1.14 1.32 0.32
3rd trimester 349 (306) 4.6 ± 11.1 3.1 (2.1) 0.4 1.3 2.0 3.0 4.6 6.9 196.6 1.16 1.42 0.30