Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679



Table 4. Results of bi- and multivariate mixed effect models of factors associated (p < 0.1) with pregnant women’s urinary ETU concentrations (n = 833 samples, 437 women), all models included creatinine as independent co-variable.a
Factor Bivariate
% difference (95% CI)
p-Value Multivariate
% difference (95% CI)
p-Value
aInformation was missing for several women with at least one urine sample for washed agricultural work clothes on day of sample collection (n = 10 samples, 3 women), for near aerial spraying on day of sampling (n = 12 samples, 3 women), and for consumption of rice and beans (n = 5 samples, 3 women). bWhen grouping 2nd and 3rd quartile together percent difference was 18% (95% CI: 2.7, 35%; p = 0.01) for bivariate model and 14% (95% CI: 0.3, 30%, p = 0.04) for multivariate model, respectively. cWhen we included distance as a continuous variable (ln-meters) instead of categorical variable, we detected a negative association between residential proximity to banana plantation (ln-meters) and lnETU; for bivariate model: β = –0.09 (95% CI: –0.12, –0.06) (p < 0.0001), for multivariate model: β = –0.08 (95% CI: –0.11, –0.05) (p < 0.0001).
Creatinine (μ/L) 77 (66, 89) < 0.0001 80 (69, 92) < 0.0001
Residential distance to banana plantation (m)b,c        
< 48 (1st quartile) 52 (28, 80) < 0.0001 45 (23, 72) < 0.0001
≥ 48–216 (2nd quartile) 18 (–1.0, 40) 0.07 12 (–5.4, 38) 0.31
≥ 216–565 (3rd quartile) 17 (–1.1, 39) 0.07 17 (–1.2, 38) 0.08
≥ 565 (4th quartile)
Occupation in agriculture during pregnancy 19 (9.0, 30) < 0.001 19 (9.3, 29) < 0.0001
Washed agricultural work clothes on day of sampling 5.8 (–0.2, 12) 0.06    
Washed agricultural work clothes on day before sampling 13 (6.2, 19) < 0.0001 11 (4.9, 17) 0.0003
Near aerial spraying day of sample collection 7.2 (1.4, 13) 0.01    
Consumption of rice and beans ≥ 15 times a week 5.1 (–0.3, 11) 0.07    
Immigrant 10 (3.4, 17) 0.003 6.2 (1.0, 13) 0.049