Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679



Table 5. Sociodemographic, environmental, and occupational characteristics of Costa Rican–born (n = 361) and immigrant (n = 84) women.
Characteristic Costa Rican born
(n = 361)
Immigrants
(n = 84)
p-Value
Age (years) [median (IQR)] 22.1 (18.8, 27.3) 23.9 (20.2, 30.1) 0.05
Education (mean ± SD) 7.1 ± 2.6 6.5 ± 3.2 0.08
Distance to banana plantation (m) [median (IQR)] 98 (19, 366) 267 (75, 602) 0.0007
Income/per capita (US$) [median (IQR)] 120 (77, 172) 120 (80, 200) 0.55
Work in agriculture (%) 7.5% 10.7% 0.33
Near aerial spraying      
Day of sampling 23% 33% 0.08
Day before sampling 26% 23% 0.60
Washing agricultural work clothes      
Day of sampling 18% 28% 0.05
Day before sampling 15% 39% < 0.0001