Green and Blue Spaces and Behavioral Development in Barcelona Schoolchildren: The BREATHE Project

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408215



Table 1. Description of characteristics of all BREATHE participants (n = 2,897) and those included in this current study (n = 2,111), Barcelona, 2012 [n (%)].
Variable BREATHE participants Study participants
Child sex    
Female 1,441 (49.7) 1,040 (49.3)
Male 1,456 (50.3) 1,071 (50.7)
Child school level (grade)    
Second 1,083 (37.4) 808 (38.2)
Third 1,036 (35.8) 750 (35.5)
Fourth 778 (26.9) 553 (26.2)
Maternal educational achievement    
None or primary education 347 (12.0) 217 (10.3)
Secondary education 781 (27.0) 618 (29.3)
University education 1,596 (55.1) 1,260 (59.7)
Missing 173 (5.9) 16 (0.8)
Paternal educational achievement    
None or primary education 419 (14.5) 262 (12.4)
Secondary education 848 (29.3) 652 (30.9)
University 1,418 (49.0) 1,154 (54.7)
Missing 212 (7.3) 43 (2.0)
Maternal employment status    
Unemployed 476 (16.4) 358 (17.0)
Employee 1,781 (61.5) 1,373 (65.0)
Self-employed 453 (15.7) 352 (16.7)
Missing 187 (6.5) 28 (1.3)
Paternal employment status    
Unemployed 260 (9.0) 212 (10.0)
Employee 1,565 (54.0) 1,200 (56.9)
Self-employed 834 (28.8) 637 (30.2)
Missing 238 (8.2) 62 (2.9)
Adopted child    
Yes 105 (3.6) 84 (4.0)
No 2,616 (90.3) 2,007 (95.1)
Missing 176 (6.1) 20 (1.0)
Parental marital status    
Non-single parent 2,312 (79.8) 1,770 (83.9)
Single parent 411 (14.2) 325 (15.4)
Missing 174 (6.0) 16 (0.8)
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke    
Yes 337 (11.6) 275 (13.0)
No 2,382 (82.2) 1,814 (85.9)
Missing 178 (6.1) 22 (1.0)
Maternal smoking during pregnancy    
Yes 261 (9.0) 210 (10.0)
No 2,395 (82.7) 1,831 (86.7)
Missing 241 (8.3) 70 (3.3)
Preterm birth    
Yes 200 (6.9) 159 (7.5)
No 2,434 (84.0) 1,867 (88.0)
Missing 263 (9.1) 86 (4.1)
Breastfeeding    
No 476 (16.4) 394 (18.7)
< 6 months 1,422 (49.1) 1,074 (50.9)
> 6 months 788 (27.2) 597 (28.3)
Missing 211 (7.3) 46 (2.2)
Ethnicity    
Spanish 2,574 (88.9) 1,908 (90.4)
Non-Spanish 279 (9.6) 189 (9.0)
Missing 44 (1.5) 14 (0.7)