Green and Blue Spaces and Behavioral Development in Barcelona Schoolchildren: The BREATHE Project

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408215



Table 2. Unadjusted and adjusteda percent change (95% CI) in outcomes associated with an IQR increase in the green space playing time (492 hr) and annual beach attendance (32 days) and with living within 300 m of a major green space (residential proximity), Barcelona, 2011.
Outcome Green space
playing time
Annual beach attendance Residential proximity
aAdjusted for child’s school level, sex, ethnicity, preterm birth, breastfeeding, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, maternal smoking during pregnancy, responding person, parental educational achievement, parental employment status, parental marital status, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. *p < 0.1. **p < 0.05.
SDQ      
Difficulties      
Total      
Unadjusted –6.6 (–10.1, –2.9)** –4.3 (–7.5, –0.9)** –0.3 (–7.3, 7.2)
Adjusted –4.8 (–8.6, –0.9)** –3.9 (–7.2, –0.4)** –1.3 (–8.2, 6.2)
Hyperactivity/inattention      
Unadjusted –4.0 (–8.1, 0.2)* –0.6 (–4.3, 3.2) –1.8 (–9.4, 6.3)
Adjusted –2.7 (–7.0, 1.5) –0.7 (–4.6, 3.2) –3.0 (–10.6, 5.2)
Emotional symptoms      
Unadjusted –11.6 (–16.6, –6.2)** –6.6 (–11.4, –1.6)** 4.8 (–5.6, 16.4)
Adjusted –8.2 (–13.9, –2.2)** –3.9 (–9.1, 1.6) 1.9 (–8.7, 13.8)
Conduct problems      
Unadjusted –3.7 (–9.7, 2.9) –5.0 (–10.4, 0.7)* 2.3 (–9.2, 15.3)
Adjusted 0.7 (–5.6, 7.5) –2.8 (–8.2, 2.9) 0.6 (–10.6, 13.1)
Peer relationship problems      
Unadjusted –17.5 (–24.0, –10.4)** –17.6 (–23.7, –11.1)** –2.4 (–16.4, 13.8)
Adjusted –15.4 (–22.7, –7.4)** –16.8 (–23.4, –9.7)** –5.1 (–19.1, 11.3)
Strengths      
Prosocial behavior      
Unadjusted 0.3 (–0.9, 1.5) 1.0 (0.0, 2.1)** 0.9 (–1.3, 3.1)
Adjusted 0.2 (–1.0, 1.5) 1.1 (0.0, 2.2)** 0.7 (–1.5, 3.0)
ADHD/DSM-IV      
ADHD      
Unadjusted –1.6 (–8.8, 6.1) –1.1 (–7.5, 5.8) 4.6 (–8.9, 20.2)
Adjusted –1.6 (–9.0, 6.4) –0.1 (–6.7, 6.9) 1.8 (–11.6, 17.3)
Inattention      
Unadjusted –0.7 (–7.8, 7.0) –3.6 (–9.8, 3.0) 2.6 (–10.6, 17.7)
Adjusted –0.2 (–7.7, 7.9) –2.4 (–8.9, 4.5) –0.2 (–14.3, 23.5)
Hyperactivity-impulsivity      
Unadjusted –4.0 (–13.0, 5.9) 3.2 (–5.2, 12.5) 6.6 (–10.8, 27.3)
Adjusted –5.4 (–14.5, 4.8) 3.5 (–5.2, 12.9) 2.9 (–14.3, 23.5)