Green and Blue Spaces and Behavioral Development in Barcelona Schoolchildren: The BREATHE Project

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408215



Table 3. Unadjusted and adjusteda percent change (95% CI) in outcomes associated with an IQR increase in the average of NDVI surrounding participants’ residences, school (school greenness), and home and school combined (home–school greenness), Barcelona, 2011.
Outcome Residential surrounding greenness School greenness Home–school greenness
100-m buffer 250-m buffer 500-m buffer
aAdjusted for child’s school level, sex, ethnicity, preterm birth, breastfeeding, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, maternal smoking during pregnancy, responding person, parental educational achievement, parental employment status, parental marital status, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. *p < 0.1. **p < 0.05.
SDQ          
Difficulties          
Total          
Unadjusted –2.7 (–5.7, 0.3)* –3.5 (–6.1, –0.8)** –3.7 (–6.5, –0.9)** –5.7 (–12.2, 1.3) –4.4 (–8.3, –0.3)**
Adjusted –3.6 (–6.6, –0.6)** –3.8 (–6.4, –1.2)** –4.0 (–6.7, –1.2)** –2.3 (–7.4, 3.1) –4.5 (–8.6, –0.1)**
Hyperactivity/inattention          
Unadjusted –4.4 (–7.6, –1.0)** –4.2 (–7.1, –1.3)** –3.9 (–6.9, –0.9)** –5.0 (–10.7, 1.0)* –5.8 (–9.7, –1.7)**
Adjusted –5.0 (–8.2, –1.6)** –4.5 (–7.4, –1.6)** –4.1 (–7.1, –1.0)** –2.1 (–7.3, 3.3) –5.1 (–9.5, –0.5)**
Emotional symptoms          
Unadjusted –0.1 (–4.5, 4.4) –1.6 (–5.4, 2.2) –3.4 (–7.2, 0.6)* –4.5 (–11.7, 3.3) –1.5 (–6.8, 4.0)*
Adjusted –1.4 (–5.9, 3.2) –2.4 (–6.3, 1.6) –4.3 (–8.1, –0.1)** –2.4 (–9.0, 4.6) –2.5 (–8.3, 3.6)
Conduct problems          
Unadjusted –4.8 (–9.6, 0.3)* –3.9 (–8.1, 0.5)* –3.7 (–8.0, 0.9) –8.1 (–15.9, 0.3)* –7.2 (–12.9, –1.1)
Adjusted –4.8 (–9.4, 0.2)* –3.6 (–7.8, 0.7)* –3.1 (–7.4, 1.4) –1.0 (–8.4, 7.0) –4.3 (–10.6, 2.5)
Peer relationship problems          
Unadjusted –0.4 (–6.7, 6.2) –3.6 (–9.1, 2.3) –2.9 (–8.6, 3.3) –9.8 (–23.2, 5.9) –2.5 (–10.7, 6.6)
Adjusted –2.4 (–8.7, 4.3) –4.9 (–10.4, 0.9)* –4.6 (–10.2, 1.4) –4.4 (–13.6, 5.8) –4.4 (–12.5, 4.4)
Strengths          
Prosocial behavior          
Unadjusted 0.5 (–0.4, 1.4) 0.7 (–0.1, 1.5)* 0.7 (0.0, 1.5)* 1.1 (–0.3, 2.5) 0.8 (–0.2, 1.9)
Adjusted 0.3 (–0.7, 1.2) 0.5 (–0.3, 1.3) 0.5 (–0.3, 1.3) 0.9 (–0.5, 2.3) 0.7 (–0.5, 2.0)
ADHD/DSM-IV          
ADHD          
Unadjusted –2.0 (–7.6, 4.0) –0.1 (–5.0, 5.0) 0.2 (–4.7, 5.4) –7.0 (–15.4, 2.3) –4.2 (–10.7, 2.9)
Adjusted –6.0 (–11.3, –0.2)** –2.8 (–7.6, 2.3) –2.6 (–7.6, 2.7) –5.4 (–13.6, 3.5) –7.7 (–14.5, –0.3)**
Inattention          
Unadjusted –2.4 (–7.9, 3.5) 0.3 (–4.5, 5.4) –0.1 (–5.0, 5.1) –6.2 (–15.1, 3.8) –4.2 (–10.9, 2.9)
Adjusted –6.2 (–11.6, –0.4)** –1.8 (–6.7, 3.3) –2.6 (–7.6, 2.7) –3.9 (–12.5, 5.6) –7.0 (–14.1, 0.6)*
Hyperactivity-impulsivity          
Unadjusted –1.0 (–8.2, 6.7) –0.2 (–6.4, 6.4) 1.2 (–5.1, 7.8) –8.4 (–18.3, 2.8) –3.9 (–12.1, 5.1)
Adjusted –5.5 (–12.5, 2.0) –3.8 (–10.0, 2.8) –2.3 (–8.8, 4.7) –7.5 (–17.8, 4.1) –8.5 (–17.4, 1.3)*