Enablers and Barriers to Large-Scale Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves: A Systematic Review


Table 2. Enabling and limiting factors for uptake of improved stoves.
Domain/factor Type of evidence Country, study ID,a and settingb
Abbreviations: A, Qualitative studies; B, quantitative studies; C, case studies.
aStudy IDs are listed in Table 1. bAll factors are supported by findings in rural as well as urban settings.
D1. Fuel and technology characteristics    
Fuel savings A, B, C BangladeshA2,B10,C9,C27, Burkina FasoC14, CambodiaC8, GuatemalaC22, IndiaA1,A5,A10,B7,C2–C7,C16, KenyaA8,C12, MongoliaA4, MexicoA12, NepalB12, NigerC11, Sri LankaC1, UgandaB16
Impacts on time A, B, C BangladeshA11,C9, Burkina FasoC14, CambodiaC8, GuatemalaC22,C24, IndiaA1,A6,C2–C7,C16, IndonesiaC19, KenyaC12, MexicoA3,A12,A14, NepalA7,B12, Sri LankaC1, UgandaB16
General design requirements A, B, C BangladeshC21, CambodiaC8, ChinaC18, GuatemalaC22–C24, IndiaA1,A5,A6,B8,C2–C7,C17, IndonesiaC19, MexicoA3,A12,A13,B13, NepalB12, UgandaB16
Durability and other specific design requirements A, B, C BangladeshC9, Burkina FasoC14, GuatemalaC22, IndiaA1,A6,B8,C7,C17, IndonesiaC19, KenyaC12, MexicoA3,A12,C10, NepalB12, NigerC11, Sri LankaC1, UgandaB9,B16
Fuel requirements A, B, C BangladeshA2,A11, GuatemalaC24, IndiaA1,C7,C17, IndonesiaC19, MexicoA3,A12,A13, NepalA7,B12, UgandaB16
D2. Household and setting characteristics    
Socioeconomic status A, B, C Burkina FasoC14, EthiopiaB3, IndiaB14,C16, IndonesiaC19, KenyaA8,A9,B11,B15, PakistanB6, PeruB1, SenegalB2, SudanB4
Education B, C BangladeshB10, EthiopiaB3, IndiaB5,B14, IndonesiaC19, KenyaB15, MexicoB13, PakistanB6, Peru B1, Sri LankaC1, SenegalB2, SudanB4
Demographics B EthiopiaB3, IndiaB14, KenyaB11,B15, MexicoB13, PakistanB6, PeruB1, SudanB4, UgandaB9
House ownership and structure A, B, C EthiopiaB3, KenyaA9, IndiaC3–C5, MexicoB13,C10, PeruC20, UgandaB16
Multiple fuel and stove use A, B, C CambodiaC8, IndiaA10,B7,C4,C5,C16, IndonesiaC19, MexicoA12–A14,B13,C10, PakistanB6, Sri LankaC1
Geography and climate A, C BangladeshA11,C9, CambodiaC8, GuatemalaC23, IndiaA1,C3,C16, KenyaA8, Mexico A12, MongoliaA4, NigerC11
D3. Knowledge and perceptions    
Smoke, health, and safety A, B, C BangladeshA11,B10, CambodiaC8, GuatemalaC23, IndiaA1,B8,C2–C7,C16, IndonesiaC19, KenyaA9,C12, MexicoA3,A14,B13,C10, MongoliaA4, NepalB12, NigerC11, UgandaB16
Cleanliness and home improvement A, B, C GuatemalaC23,C24, IndiaA5,B8,C2–C7, KenyaA8,A9,C12, MexicoA3,A12,A14,C10, MongoliaA4, NepalA7, NigerC11, UgandaB16
Total perceived benefit A, B, C BangladeshC21, IndiaA1,A6,B8,B14,C4,C6, KenyaA8,A9, MexicoA12, NepalA7,B12, NigerC11, SudanB4, UgandaB16
Social influence A, B, C BangladeshB10, IndiaC2–C4, IndonesiaC19, KenyaA8,C12, MexicoA3,A12,A14,B13,C10, NepalA7,B12, NigerC11, PeruB1,C20, UgandaB16
Tradition and culture A, B, C BangladeshA11, IndiaA1,A5,A6,C5, KenyaA8, MexicoA3,A12,A13, NepalA7,B12, UgandaB16
D4. Financial, tax, and subsidy aspects    
Stove costs and subsidies A, B, C BangladeshB10,C26,C27, GuatemalaC22–C24, IndiaA1,A10,C2,C7,C17, IndonesiaC19, KenyaA8,A9,C12, MongoliaA4, NigerC11, UgandaB9,B16
Payment modalities A, B, C BangladeshB10,C21,C26, GhanaC13, GuatemalaC22, IndiaA5,A6,B8,C16, KenyaA9, MexicoC10, PeruC20, UgandaB9
Program subsidies A, C BangladeshC9,C21,C25, ChinaC18, GhanaC13, GuatemalaC22–C24, IndiaC5,C6,C16, KenyaA9, MexicoA13
D5. Market development    
Demand creation A, B, C BangladeshB10, C9,C21,C25,C27, Burkina FasoC14, EthiopiaB3, GuatemalaC22–C24, IndiaA10,C3,C16–C17, IndonesiaC19, KenyaA8,B11,B15,C12, MexicoC10, NigerC11, PeruC20, SudanB4, UgandaB9,B16
Supply chains A, C BangladeshA11,C21,C25, GhanaC13, GuatemalaC22,C23, IndiaA1,A10,C6,C16, IndonesiaC19, KenyaA8, NigerC11, Sri LankaC1
Business and sales approach A, B, C BangladeshA11,C9,C21, CambodiaC8, GhanaC13, GuatemalaC22,C23, IndiaA10,C3–C6,C16,C17, IndonesiaC19, KenyaA8,B15, MexicoC10, UgandaB9
D6. Regulation, legislation, and standards    
Regulation, certification, and standardization A, C CambodiaC8, ChinaC18, GuatemalaC22, KenyaA8,C12, IndiaC4,C6,C7,C16, NigerC11
Enforcement mechanisms C CambodiaC8, ChinaC18, IndiaC2,C3,C5,C7,C16,C17
D7. Programmatic and policy mechanisms    
Construction and installation A, B, C BangladeshA2,C26,C9, CambodiaC8, ChinaC18, GuatemalaC22–C24, IndiaA6,B5,C2–C7, MexicoA3,A12, NepalA7, PeruC20, Sri LankaC1
Institutional arrangements A, C BangladeshA11,C25, ChinaC18, GuatemalaC23,C24, IndiaC2–C7,C16,C17,, KenyaA9, Sri LankaC1
Community involvement A, C BangladeshC21,C26, GuatemalaC22, IndiaA10,C2–C6, KenyaA9, MexicoA13,C10
Creation of competition C CambodiaC8, ChinaC18, IndiaC2–C5,C7, PeruC20
User training A, B, C BangladeshA11,C9,C25,C26, GuatemalaC22,C23, IndiaB5,C2–C5,C7,C16, IndonesiaC19, MexicoA3,A12,C10
Post­acquisition support A, B, C BangladeshA11,C9,C25,C26, IndiaA10,B5,C2–C4,C6,C7,C16, MexicoA3,A13
Monitoring and quality control C BangladeshC9,C21,C25,C27, CambodiaC8, GuatemalaC22–C24, IndiaC2–C7,C16, IndonesiaC19, MexicoC10, NigerC11