F2RL3 Methylation as a Biomarker of Current and Lifetime Smoking Exposures

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306937

Table 5. Association between smoking behaviors and F2RL3 (CpG_4) methyla­tion intensity among former smokers (n = 1,136).
Smoking characteristic Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
Regression coefficient (95% CI) p‑Value Regression coefficient (95% CI) p‑Value Regression coefficient (95% CI) p‑Value
aLinear regression without adjustment. bLinear regression adjusted for sex, age, BMI (underweight/normal weight/overweight/obesity), physical activity (inactive/low/medium and high), prevalence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and batch effect. cLinear regression as in model 2, also adjusted for cumulative dose and time since cessation of smoking.
Cumulative dose of smoking (pack-years)            
0.5–9 Reference   Reference   Reference  
10–19 –0.034 (–0.050, –0.017) < 0.0001 –0.031 (–0.047, –0.015) 0.0002 –0.017 (–0.032, –0.001) 0.03
20–29 –0.071 (–0.089, –0.054) < 0.0001 –0.072 (–0.089, –0.055) < 0.0001 –0.042 (–0.059, –0.024) < 0.0001
30–101 –0.099 (–0.115, –0.082) < 0.0001 –0.095 (–0.112, –0.079) < 0.0001 –0.044 (–0.062, –0.025) < 0.0001
Time since cessation of smoking (years)            
1 Reference   Reference   Reference  
2–4 0.045 (0.011, 0.080) 0.0098 0.056 (0.023, 0.088) 0.0008 0.051 (0.018, 0.084) 0.0027
5–9 0.052 (0.019, 0.084) 0.0020 0.063 (0.032, 0.093) < 0.0001 0.058 (0.026, 0.089) 0.0003
10–19 0.098 (0.067, 0.128) < 0.0001 0.104 (0.076, 0.133) < 0.0001 0.090 (0.061, 0.120) < 0.0001
20–50 0.140 (0.110, 0.170) < 0.0001 0.157 (0.129, 0.186) < 0.0001 0.132 (0.101, 0.163) < 0.0001