Smoking characteristic | Model 1^{a} | Model 2^{b} | Model 3^{c} | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Regression coefficient (95% CI) | p‑Value | Regression coefficient (95% CI) | p‑Value | Regression coefficient (95% CI) | p‑Value | |
^{a}Linear regression without adjustment. ^{b}Linear regression adjusted for sex, age, BMI (underweight/normal weight/overweight/obesity), physical activity (inactive/low/medium and high), prevalence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and batch effect. ^{c}Linear regression as in model 2, also adjusted for cumulative dose and time since cessation of smoking. | ||||||
Cumulative dose of smoking (pack-years) | ||||||
0.5–9 | Reference | Reference | Reference | |||
10–19 | –0.034 (–0.050, –0.017) | < 0.0001 | –0.031 (–0.047, –0.015) | 0.0002 | –0.017 (–0.032, –0.001) | 0.03 |
20–29 | –0.071 (–0.089, –0.054) | < 0.0001 | –0.072 (–0.089, –0.055) | < 0.0001 | –0.042 (–0.059, –0.024) | < 0.0001 |
30–101 | –0.099 (–0.115, –0.082) | < 0.0001 | –0.095 (–0.112, –0.079) | < 0.0001 | –0.044 (–0.062, –0.025) | < 0.0001 |
Time since cessation of smoking (years) | ||||||
1 | Reference | Reference | Reference | |||
2–4 | 0.045 (0.011, 0.080) | 0.0098 | 0.056 (0.023, 0.088) | 0.0008 | 0.051 (0.018, 0.084) | 0.0027 |
5–9 | 0.052 (0.019, 0.084) | 0.0020 | 0.063 (0.032, 0.093) | < 0.0001 | 0.058 (0.026, 0.089) | 0.0003 |
10–19 | 0.098 (0.067, 0.128) | < 0.0001 | 0.104 (0.076, 0.133) | < 0.0001 | 0.090 (0.061, 0.120) | < 0.0001 |
20–50 | 0.140 (0.110, 0.170) | < 0.0001 | 0.157 (0.129, 0.186) | < 0.0001 | 0.132 (0.101, 0.163) | < 0.0001 |