Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight: Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306837



Table 1. Description of preterm birth and air pollution characteristics, by country, WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health, 2004–2008.
Region and country No. of facilities Live, spontaneous, singleton births (n) Preterm birth (%) LBW (%) Mother’s age [years (mean ± SD)] Mother’s education [years (mean ± SD)] Parity (mean ± SD) Antenatal visits (mean ± SD) Mean PM2.5 [μg/m3 (range)a] Seasonally adjusted
PM2.5 [μg/m3 (range)]
DR, Democratic Republic.
aMean PM2.5 refers to the mean values during 2001–2006 for each facility in each country.
Africa                    
Algeria 17 12,718 3.7 3.5 30.3 ± 5.8 8.6 ± 4.6 2.6 ± 1.7 5.0 ± 2.6 10.7–16.7 3.6–11.7
Congo, DR 19 7,067 7.4 11.8 27.2 ± 6.8 8.3 ± 3.8 3.3 ± 2.4 3.6 ± 1.5 11.7–16.8 6.6–24.4
Kenya 19 16,694 9.4 7.3 24.7 ± 5.7 9.8 ± 2.9 2.1 ± 1.4 4.1 ± 2.3 4.2–5.5 2.5–7.7
Niger 7 4,826 3.2 10.4 26.6 ± 6.5 3.8 ± 4.4 3.4 ± 2.4 2.9 ± 1.5 27.7–34.1 3.0–44.0
Nigeria 17 6,538 8.6 5.3 27.6 ± 6.0 9.4 ± 5.6 3.0 ± 2.2 5.7 ± 3.9 17.5–35.4 7.1–53.5
Asia                    
Cambodia 5 5,170 5.6 6.9 26.8 ± 5.5 7.0 ± 3.8 1.8 ± 1.2 4.4 ± 2.1 13.3–15.8 16.8–23.9
China 21 9,221 4.8 3.6 26.2 ± 4.7 8.7 ± 3.5 1.4 ± 0.6 5.9 ± 3.5 6.4–98.1 2.6–145.2
India 13 14,622 10.3 20.4 24.5 ± 3.6 6.1 ± 4.1 1.8 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 2.8 19.6–63.9 10.6–109.3
Japan 10 2,191 4.3 7.9 31.0 ± 4.9 14.0 ± 2.0 1.6 ± 0.8 11.8 ± 3.2 8.7–20.9 11.8–34.9
Nepal 8 7,042 9.2 11.4 23.5 ± 4.2 6.1 ± 4.6 1.6 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 2.1 20.6–46.3 11.7–61.6
Philippines 17 11,326 7.6 14.1 26.3 ± 6.4 10.4 ± 2.6 2.2 ± 1.6 4.5 ± 2.8 8.2–11.0 12.7–23.2
Sri Lanka 14 6,381 8.1 14.2 27.6 ± 5.5 10.4 ± 2.6 1.9 ± 1.0 8.6 ± 3.3 5.5–7.7 4.9–14.9
Thailand 11 7,344 11.1 9.2 26.9 ± 6.1 9.6 ± 4.0 1.7 ± 0.9 7.9 ± 3.6 8.9–21.7 15.8–35.6
Vietnam 15 11,800 3.0 4.1 27.7 ± 4.7 12.4 ± 2.8 1.6 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 2.8 9.6–43.4 12.1–54.3
Latin America                    
Argentina 14 7,745 6.6 5.7 26.6 ± 6.5 9.3 ± 3.1 2.3 ± 1.7 6.2 ± 3.0 4.5–8.3 3.6–10.1
Brazil 19 10,735 7.1 8.4 24.1 ± 6.0 7.6 ± 3.1 2.2 ± 1.6 5.9 ± 2.6 1.4–6.3 1.3–9.3
Cuba 17 7,841 4.0 3.9 26.3 ± 6.4 11.4 ± 2.6 1.7 ± 0.8 11.2 ± 2.7 7.1–9.2 3.7–8.5
Ecuador 13 9,845 7.0 10.3 24.6 ± 6.3 9.0 ± 3.6 2.3 ± 1.5 5.3 ± 3.0 4.0–13.0 2.8–14.1
Mexico 20 14,497 7.5 7.5 25.0 ± 6.0 8.4 ± 3.3 2.2 ± 1.4 6.5 ± 3.0 10.8–21.9 4.3–20.1
Nicaragua 6 4,001 6.3 7.0 23.0 ± 5.8 6.8 ± 3.6 2.2 ± 1.5 4.0 ± 2.6 7.2–8.1 1.0–10.9
Paraguay 6 2,466 8.6 5.6 25.4 ± 6.4 8.8 ± 3.4 2.4 ± 1.8 4.9 ± 2.9 3.3–4.5 3.1–6.8
Peru 17 12,830 5.8 5.0 26.2 ± 6.4 10.1 ± 3.1 2.0 ± 1.3 6.2 ± 3.1 8.6–20.6 6.9–30.9