The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307204



Table 2. Outdoor exposures.
Exposure group Entire cohort (n = 32,000), for
pre- and postnatal exposure periods
Subcohort
(n = 1,200)
Child Panel Study
(1 week in 2 seasons) (n = 150)
Pregnancy Panel Study
(1 week in 2 seasons) (n = 150)
Abbreviations: GIS, geographic information system; GPS, global positioning system; LUR, land use regression; NO2, nitrogen dioxide; NOX, nitrous oxides; OMI, ozone monitoring ­instrument; PM2.5, particles ≤ 2.5 μm in size; PM2.5 absorbance, measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters—a proxy for elemental carbon, which is the dominant light-absorbing substance; PMcoarse, particles between 2.5 and 10 μm in size; PM10, particles ≤ 10 μm in size.
Ambient air pollutants LUR model for NO2, PM2.5, PM10, PMcoarse, PM2.5 absorbance, PM elemental analyses. Routine monitoring and OMI satellite data for temporal variability. LUR model for NO2, PM2.5, PM10, PMcoarse, PM2.5 absorbance, PM elemental analyses. Routine monitoring and OMI satellite data for temporal variability. Inhalation rates and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones. Personal monitoring (24 hr) of PM2.5 (and black carbon. Inhalation rates and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones. Personal monitoring (24 hr) of PM2.5 and black carbon.
Noise Existing municipal noise maps to obtain spatial estimates. Address-based modeling of noise at the most and least exposed facade. New questionnaires in children on bedroom position, noise perception, etc. Noise estimates based on maps and questions. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones.
UV Remote sensing (satellite) UV radiation maps. New questionnaires in children on traveling, use of sunscreens, clothes, skin color. UV radiation estimates based on maps and questions. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones and questionnaires. Personal monitoring using electronic UV dosimeters. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones and questionnaires. Personal monitoring using electronic UV dosimeters.
Temperature Remote sensing (satellite) temperature maps (from thermal infrared band) and data from local meteorological stations. New questionnaires in children on heating and air conditioning. Temperature estimates based on maps and questions. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones and questionnaires. Personal monitoring of temperature using electronic dosimeters. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones and questionnaires. Personal monitoring of temperature using electronic dosimeters.
Built environment/green spaces Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from satellite. Building density, walkability score, accessibility, bike lanes, etc., derived from GIS data. New questionnaires in children on use of green spaces, public spaces, active transportation. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones and questionnaires. Time–activity and mobility (GPS) data from smartphones and questionnaires.