Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Neurodevelopment in U.S. Children through 5 Years of Age: The HOME Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307562



Table 1. Maternal serum PBDE concentrations around 16 weeks of gestation and child neurodevelopmental test scores at age 5 years by maternal and child characteristics.
Categorical characteristics n at enrollment (%) Maternal BDE-47
(ng/g lipid) [GM (GSD)]
n with WPPSI
at age 5 (%)
WPPSI FSIQ
at age 5 (mean ± SD)
n with BASC-2
at age 5 (%)
BASC externalizing problems
at age 5 (mean ± SD)
GM, geometric mean; GSD, geometric standard deviation.
*< 0.05 for BDE-47. **< 0.05 for FSIQ. #< 0.05 for BASC Externalizing Problems. The statistical tests included t-test, analysis of variance, or Student–Newman–Keuls test.
All participants 309 (100) 20.1 (2.61) 190 (100) 102.33 ± 15.20 194 (100) 47.13 ± 9.26
Maternal age (years)*,**            
< 25 63 (20) 27.54 (2.24) 39 (21) 92.18 ± 13.60 39 (20) 48.71 ± 13.11
25–34 194 (63) 19.50 (2.69) 122 (64) 103.59 ± 14.47 128 (66) 46.78 ± 7.86
≥ 35 52 (17) 15.14 (2.57) 29 (15) 110.69 ± 13.49 27 (14) 46.44 ± 8.89
Maternal race/ethnicity*,**            
Non-Hispanic white 207 (67) 16.98 (2.51) 122 (64) 107.09 ± 13.55 124 (64) 47.48 ± 8.34
Non-Hispanic black and others 102 (33) 28.84 (2.51) 68 (36) 93.79 ± 14.34 70 (36) 46.51 ± 10.74
Maternal education*,**            
High school or less 70 (23) 28.84 (2.29) 44 (23) 90.23 ± 13.65 45 (23) 47.91 ± 11.35
Some college or 2-year degree 72 (23) 22.91 (2.34) 50 (26) 98.58 ± 13.40 50 (26) 49.52 ± 10.69
Bachelor’s 101 (33) 16.98 (2.69) 60 (32) 110.48 ± 12.14 61 (31) 45.25 ± 6.22
Graduate or professional 66 (21) 15.14 (2.82) 36 (19) 108.75 ± 12.63 38 (20) 46.08 ± 8.06
Maternal marital status*,**            
Married or living with partner 251 (81) 18.20 (2.63) 149 (78) 105.52 ± 14.26 153 (79) 46.52 ± 8.09
Not married and living alone 58 (19) 31.63 (2.19) 41 (22) 90.73 ± 12.81 41 (21) 49.39 ± 12.60
Household income*,**,#            
< $20,000 63 (20) 32.36 (2.29) 44 (23) 88.45 ± 13.34 45 (23) 51.02 ± 12.56
$20,000–79,999 157 (51) 19.95 (2.63) 96 (51) 103.63 ± 13.63 97 (50) 45.63 ± 8.03
≥ $80,000 89 (29) 14.45 (2.40) 50 (26) 112.06 ± 10.13 52 (27) 46.56 ± 7.01
Child sex*            
Male 141 (46) 17.78 (2.51) 83 (44) 100.40 ± 15.35 87 (45) 47.38 ± 8.24
Female 168 (54) 22.39 (2.63) 107 (56) 103.83 ± 15.00 107 (55) 46.93 ± 10.05