Association of Global DNA Methylation and Global DNA Hydroxymethylation with Metals and Other Exposures in Human Blood DNA Samples

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306674



Table 1. Baseline participant characteristics in the Strong Heart Study (SHS).
Characteristic SHS sample, visit 1 (n = 48) SHS and SHFSa (n = 517)
NA, not available. Data are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (IQR).
aSHS participants with urinary metal measurements who also participated in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). bn = 47. cn = 46. dSum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in urine.
Age (years) 54.9 ± 7.2 55.0 ± 7.3
Female 33 (68.7) 343 (66.3)
Education < high school 19 (39.6) 214 (41.4)
BMI (kg/m2)b 31.0 ± 5.8 31.6 ± 6.0
Waist circumference (cm)c 105.0 ± 14.0 106.7 ±14.3
Percent body fat 36.8 ± 8.8 37.9 ± 8.9
Ever-smokers 28 (58.3) 326 (63.1)
Cumulative smoking (pack-years)c 8.5 ± 15.5 9.3 ± 17.40
Ever alcohol drinkers 40 (83.3) 421 (81.4)
Urinary arsenic (μg/g)d 10.02 (6.32, 16.20) 8.10 (5.10, 14.6)
%iAs 8.53 (5.53, 10.71) 7.63 (5.44, 10.30)
%MMA 14.35 (11.02, 17.82) 13.69 (10.60, 16.93)
%DMA 78.32 (71.27, 81.39) 78.69 (72.15, 83.14)
Cadmium (μg/g) 0.88 (0.52, 1.45) 0.92 (0.61, 1.45)
Antimony (μg/g) 0.27 (0.17, 0.46) 0.22 (0.15, 0.36)
Tungsten (μg/g) 0.13 (0.08, 0.27) 0.14 (0.07, 0.25)