New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Biomonitoring, and Prevention: A Systematic Approach Based on Animal Evidence

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307455



Table 1. Rodent mammary gland carcinogens included in NHANES exposure surveillance.
Parent chemical Blood biomarker Urine biomarker Detection frequency (%) Reference
Abbreviations: Hb, hemoglobin; HEMA, 2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid; MA, muconic acid; NA, not applicable; PFOA, perfluorooctanoic acid.
aA metabolite of vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, 1,2-dibromoethane, acrylonitrile, and other electrophilic two-carbon compounds (Alwis et al. 2012; Calafat et al. 1999). ­bA metabolite of > 15 organophosphate insecticides, including dichlorvos, malathion, and methyl parathion (CDC 2009). cA metabolite of ≥ 6 pyrethroid insecticides (CDC 2009). dPAH metabolites have not been identified as rodent mammary carcinogens in this method, but exposure is likely to be correlated with carcinogenic PAHs or nitro-PAHs, in some cases.
1,1-Dichloroethane 1,1-Dichloroethane None < 5 CDC 2009
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane None < 5 CDC 2009
1,2-Dibromoethane None HEMA (nonspecific)a 71 (nonspecific metabolite)a Alwis et al. 2012; Calafat et al. 1999
1,2-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane None < 5 CDC 2009
1,2-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane None < 5 CDC 2009
1,3-Butadiene None MA metabolites NA Alwis et al. 2012
Acrylamide Hb adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide MA metabolites > 50 (blood) Alwis et al. 2012
Acrylonitrile None HEMA (nonspecific)a; specific MA metabolite 71 (nonspecific metabolite)a Alwis et al. 2012; Calafat et al. 1999
Atrazine None Atrazine mercapturate < 5 CDC 2009
Benzene Benzene MA metabolites > 50 (blood) Alwis et al. 2012; CDC 2009
Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrachloride None < 5, 2003–2004 (> 25, 2001–2002) CDC 2009
Chlordane Serum: oxychlordane,
trans-nonachlor
None > 50 CDC 2009
Dichlorvos None Dimethyl phosphate (nonspecific)b > 25 (nonspecific metabolite)b CDC 2009
Ethylene oxide Hb adducts HEMA (nonspecific)a 71 (nonspecific urinary
metabolite)a
Alwis et al. 2012; Calafat et al. 1999; CDC 2008
Propylene oxide Hb adducts MA metabolites NA Alwis et al. 2012; CDC 2008
Fenvalerate None Phenoxybenzoic acid (nonspecific)c 75 (nonspecific metabolite)c CDC 2009; Riederer et al. 2008
Methylene chloride Methylene chloride None < 5 CDC 2009
Methyleugenol Serum: methyleugenol None 98 Barr et al. 2000
Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzene None < 5 CDC 2009
PAHsd None 22 metabolites (e.g.,
1-hydroxypyrene)
98 CDC 2012; Li et al. 2008
PFOA Serum: PFOA None > 50 CDC 2012
Styrene Styrene MA metabolite, mandelic acid > 25 (blood) Alwis et al. 2012; CDC 2009
Vinyl chloride None HEMA (nonspecific)a 71 (nonspecific metabolite)a Alwis et al. 2012; Calafat et al. 1999
Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethene) Vinylidene chloride None < 5 CDC 2009