New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Biomonitoring, and Prevention: A Systematic Approach Based on Animal Evidence

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307455



Table 3. Comparison of human and animal evidence for agents identified as plausibly linked to breast cancer in major reviews.a
Agent Human breast Rodent mammary Reference (human) Reference (rodent)
Abbreviations: DDE, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; TCDD, 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
aAgents with strongest human breast cancer evidence from reviews by IARC (2012b), Cogliano et al. (2011), Brody et al. (2007a), Hoover et al. (2011), Michels et al. (2007) and Friedman et al. (2009). Animal study findings from original research papers, NTP reports, and other government reports. bFollowing Cogliano et al. (2011), “limited positive” indicates evidence sufficient to establish a credible causal relationship but not sufficient to rule out chance, bias, or confounding. cA single study (Friedman et al. 2009) found no association between these two pharmaceuticals and breast cancer.
Estrogenic pharmaceuticals        
HRT (estrogen–progestin) Positive Positive Cogliano et al. 2011 Rudel et al. 2007
HRT (estrogen only) Limited positiveb Positive Cogliano et al. 2011 Rudel et al. 2007
Estrogen–progestin contraceptives Positive Positive Cogliano et al. 2011 Rudel et al. 2007
DES (mother and daughter) Positive Positive Cogliano et al. 2011; Hoover et al. 2011 Rudel et al. 2007
Other pharmaceuticals        
Griseofulvin, furosamide, metronidazole Limited positiveb Positive Friedman et al. 2009 Rudel et al. 2007
Indomethacin, nitrofurantoin Limited null findingc Positive Friedman et al. 2009 Rudel et al. 2007
Miscellaneous
Ionizing radiation Positive Positive Cogliano et al. 2011 Rudel et al. 2007
Ethanol/drinking alcoholic beverages Positive Limited positiveb Cogliano et al. 2011 Oyesanmi et al. 2010
Heterocyclic amines in grilled/fried meat Limited positiveb Positive Michels et al. 2007 Rudel et al. 2007
Light at night/shift work/circadian Limited positiveb Positive Cogliano et al. 2011 Stevens 2009
EtO Limited positiveb Positive Cogliano et al. 2011 Rudel et al. 2007
PAHs (auto exhaust, cigarette smoke) Limited positiveb Positive Cogliano et al. 2011 Rudel et al. 2007
Common industrial solvents Limited positiveb Positive Brody et al. 2007a Rudel et al. 2007
Persistent organochlorines        
DDE [(DDT metabolite) in older adult blood) Null Null Brody et al. 2007a; Snedeker 2001 NTP 1978
DDT (in blood at young age) Limited positiveb No study Brody et al. 2007a;.Cohn et al. 2007
PCBs (in older adult blood) Null Null Brody et al. 2007a NTP 2011
PCBs (in subpopulations with polymorphism) Limited positiveb No relevant model Brody et al. 2007a
TCDD/dioxin (in early life) Limited positiveb Positive (with carcinogen challenge) Brody et al. 2007a; Warner et al. 2011 Brown et al. 1998