High Ambient Temperatures and Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes in Catalonia, Spain (2000–2011): A Time-Series Analysis

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409223



Table 2. Descriptive statistics on the daily number of motor vehicle crashes, temperature, and heat wave periods by climatic zone.
Climatic zonea Population (year 2001) Daily number of motor vehicle crashes Weather variables
All crashes
(Mean ± SD)
With driver performance–associated factorsb Average maximum temperature
(Mean ± SD)
Average minimum temperature
(Mean ± SD)
Total number of
heat wave daysc
Rainy daysd
n
(%)
Mean ± SD Percent of all crashes Based on tmax Based on tmin
aClimatic zones are shown in Figure 1. bCrashes that included among the list of concurrent factors at least one of the following: “distraction,” “driver error,” or “disease, fatigue, or sleepiness.” cHeat waves were defined as ≥ 2 consecutive days with maximum (tmax) or minimum (tmin) temperature exceeding the weather station–specific historic 95th percentile. A day in a climatic region was considered a heat wave day if at least one station in the region registered a heat wave during that day. dA specific day in a climatic region was considered as having had some rain if at least one station in the region registered precipitation values > 0 mm.
1 354,410 3.2 ± 1.9 1.5 ± 1.3 46.7 27.9 ± 4.3 14.8 ± 3.5 163 203 912 (49)
2 241,406 2.2 ± 1.6 0.9 ± 1.0 38.1 27.2 ± 4.2 13.8 ± 3.2 92 116 975 (53)
3 130,461 0.8 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.6 36.8 26.1 ± 4.5 13.1 ± 3.1 67 103 840 (45)
4 280,706 3.5 ± 2.2 1.5 ± 1.6 42.5 28.1 ± 4.0 15.9 ± 3.0 197 126 687 (37)
5 175,592 2.1 ± 1.7 0.8 ± 1.0 39.8 26.5 ± 3.5 16.2 ± 2.9 184 156 806 (44)
6 3,083,672 36.9 ± 11.2 9.7 ± 5.1 26.3 25.9 ± 3.1 18.0 ± 2.9 292 263 625 (34)
7 555,969 5.6 ± 2.6 2.1 ± 1.7 37.4 27.7 ± 3.1 18.2 ± 2.9 204 209 897 (48)
8 1,300,082 7.4 ± 3.8 2.9 ± 2.4 38.6 26.5 ± 4.0 16.1 ± 3.1 147 162 723 (39)
9 62,190 0.7 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.5 38.2 26.8 ± 4.2 14.9 ± 3.3 218 164 817 (44)
10 83,843 0.8 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.6 39.0 25.8 ± 4.5 12.1 ± 3.2 71 92 797 (43)
11 11,879 0.1 ± 0.3 0.04 ± 0.2 40.0 19.8 ± 4.3 9.8 ± 3.4 43 74 885 (48)
12 47,448 0.6 ± 0.8 0.2 ± 0.5 36.6 23.7 ± 6.0 9.2 ± 3.6 21 27 687 (37)
13 7,707 0.2 ± 0.4 0.05 ± 0.2 31.3 21.7 ± 4.8 7.6 ± 3.2 71 61 542 (30)
14 7,691 0.1 ± 0.3 0.04 ± 0.2 44.4 23.4 ± 5.5 10.1 ± 3.4 27 34 747 (41)