Early-life Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Pediatric Respiratory Symptoms in the CHAMACOS Cohort


Table 4. Repeated measures of respiratory outcomes at ages 5 and 7 associated with the AUC of urinary DAP metabolites (nmol/g-creatinine) measured between 0.5 and 5 years of age [aOR (95% CI)].a,b
Childhood AUC n Respiratory symptoms p-Value Exercise-induced coughingc p-Value
aAdjusted for child’s sex and exact age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant (0–12 months) being around smokers, season of birth (mold/wet/pollen/dry), mean daily PM2.5 during first 3 months of life, breastfeeding duration, signs of moderate/extensive mold at home visit (6 or 12 months), distance (≤ 150 m) from highway (6 or 12 months), and signs of cockroaches at home visit (6 or 12 months). bAdjusted odds ratios reflect change per 10-fold increase in metabolite concentrations (nmol/year/g creatinine) between 0.5 and 5 years of age as assessed by the AUC to summarize DAP concentrations over time during childhood (the metabolites were modeled as log10-transformed variables). For the AUC analysis (= 270), we excluded children who did not have an AUC calculation (due to missing DAP measurements) and children with missing covariate data. cAny report on respiratory symptoms including exercise-induced coughing was also included under the respiratory symptoms variable; i.e., all children classified as positive for exercise-induced coughing were also classified as having respiratory symptoms.
Total DAPs 270 2.53 (1.32, 4.86) 0.005 5.40 (2.10, 13.91) < 0.001
DEs 270 2.35 (1.27, 4.34) 0.006 3.62 (1.38, 9.55) 0.009
DMs 270 2.17 (1.19, 3.98) 0.01 4.46 (1.81, 10.98) 0.001