First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe: Demonstration Project to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408616



Table 1. Descriptive statistics of the study population.
Children Mothers
n Median (P25–P75) Minimum–maximum n Median (P25–P75) Minimum–maximum
Age (years) 1,844 8 (7, 10) 5–12 1,844 39 (35, 42) 24–52
Urinary creatinine (mg/L) 1,842 1,053 (784, 1,426) 10–3,120 1,839 1,163 (781, 1,618) 57–3,670
Body height (cm) 1,819 135 (127, 145) 98–170 1,836 166 (161, 170) 145–191
Body weight (kg) 1,820 30 (25, 36) 14–81 1,836 64 (58, 72) 35–186
Body-mass index (kg/m²) 1,811 16.3 (14.9, 18.2) 10.0–36.1 1,833 23.2 (21.1, 26.3) 14.7–62.2
Children Mothers
n Category n (%) n Category n (%)
Sex 1,844 Boy 912 (49.5) 1,844 Woman 1,844 (100)
Girl 932 (50.5)
Area of residence 1,844 Rural 923 (50.1) 1,844 As in children
Urban 921 (49.9)
Highest educational level of the family 1,843 Primary (ISCED 0–2) 166 (9.0) 1,843

As in children

Secondary (ISCED 3–4) 607 (32.9)
Tertiary (ISCED 5–6) 1,070 (58.1)
Smoking habits 1,844 Smoker 0 (0) 1,844 Daily smoker 283 (15.3)
Nonsmoker 1,844 (100) Occasional smoker 106 (5.7)
Former smoker 401 (21.7)
Never smoker 1,054 (57.2)
ETS at home (nonsmokers only) 1,842 Daily 179 (9.7) 1,450 Yes 162 (11.2)
Less than daily 130 (7.1) No 1,288 (88.8)
Never 1,533 (83.2)
ETS elsewhere (nonsmokers only) 1,842 Yes 775 (42.1) 1,455 Yes 827 (56.8)
No 1,067 (57.9) No 628 (43.2)
ETS in last 24 hr (nonsmokers only) 1,840 Yes 232 (12.6) 1,450 Yes 164 (11.3)
No 1,608 (87.4) No 1,286 (88.7)
Children Mothers
n Category n (%) n Category n (%)
Abbreviations: ETS, environmental tobacco smoke; ISCED, International Standard Classification of Education; P25, 25th percentile; P75, 75th percentile; PVC, polyvinyl chloride.
aUse of personal care products (PCPs) is calculated as a score based on the frequency (never to daily) of nine PCP groups (makeup, eye makeup, shampoo, hair-styling products, body lotions and creams, fragrances, deodorant, massage oil, and nail polish).
Fish consumption (all types) 1,844 Several times/week 442 (24.0) 1,844 Several times/week 483 (26.2)
Once a week or less 1,402 (76.0) Once a week or less 1,361 (73.8)
Consumption of sea fish 1,840 Several times/week 283 (15.4) 1,840 Several times/week 294 (16.0)
Once a week or less 1,557 (84.6) Once a week or less 1,546 (84.0)
Consumption of shellfish 1,820 Several times/week 194 (10.7) 1,826 Several times/week 355 (19.4)
Once a week or less 1,626 (89.3)

Once a week or less 1,471 (80.6)
Consumption of freshwater fish 1,815 Several times/week 248 (13.7) 1,818 Several times/week 298 (16.4)
Once a week or less 1,567 (86.3) Once a week or less 1,520 (83.6)
Consumption of seafood products 1,811 Several times/month 94 (5.2) 1,811 Several times/month 154 (8.5)
Once a month or less 1,717 (94.8) Once a month or less 1,657 (91.5)
Consumption of ice cream 1,821 Several times/week 185 (10.2) 1,829 Several times/month 536 (29.3)
Once a week or less 1,636 (89.8) Once a month or less 1,293 (70.7)
Consumption of chewing gum 1,662 Several times/week 578 (34.8) 1,675 Several times/week 626 (37.4)
Once a week or less 1,084 (65.2) Once a week or less 1,049 (62.6)
Use of personal care productsa 1,816 High or moderate 822 (45.3) 1,806 High 861 (47.7)
Low 994 (54.7) Moderate or low 945 (52.3)
PVC in house 1,773 PVC in floors or walls 342 (19.3) 1,773

As in children

No PVC 1,431 (80.7)